The Gwion: Australia's First Civilisation?
The Gwion (Bradshaw) Paintings are incredibly sophisticated examples of rock art found predonimantly in the Mitchell Plateau and Gibb River sections of Kimberley region of Western Australia. The figures are found in raised small caves at cliff faces of substantially horizontal bedding, and in the protection of overhanging rock ledges. Each painted site offers magnificent views of the rugged landscape. Many pictures were painted on the ceiling; the artist laying on the back, as Michelangelo did painting his frescos. The early paintings are extremely old; 60,000 years or probably much more according to anthropologists. Pre-dating Aboriginal settlement in the region, the broad-shouldered, realistic representation of humans infers an origin of Egyptian Culture in the Kimberley Ranges, while the slanted profilic features of the human face, reminiscent of Mayan pictures, suggest that the Kimberley Ranges may have been the cradle of all pyramidal cultures.
The History of Sydney
The story of Sydney began in prehistoric times with the occupation of the district by Australian Aborigines, whose ancestors came to Australia between 15,000 and 45,000 years ago. The modern history of the city began with the arrival of a First Fleet of British ships in 1788 and the foundation of a penal colony, which grew into modern day Australia.
Ghost Towns of Australia
Just about every 19th century ghost town in Australia burst into life and faded into oblivion just as quickly as a result of mining, particularly gold mining. Some gold mining towns with a short productive life declined significantly in the decades after the gold rush as other towns in the district continued to grow.
The idigenous peoples of Australia are believed to have arrived about 40,000 years ago, perhaps by boat across the waters separating the island from the Indonesia archipelago. Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, and English explorers observed Australia before 1770, when Lieut. James Cook explored the east coast and claimed it for Great Britain.
On January 26, 1788 (now celebrated as Australia Day), the First Fleet under Capt. Arthur Phillip landed at Sydney, and formal proclamation of the establishment of the Colony of New South Wales followed on February 7. Many but by no means all of the first settlers were convicts, condemned to a 7-year sentence of Transportation to New South Wales for offences that today would often be thought trivial. The early-19th century saw the beginning of government policies to allow free trade, private enterprise, the emancipation of convicts and assist the immigration of free persons. The discovery of gold in 1851 led to a dramatic increase in population, wealth, and trade.
The six British colonies that now constitute the states of the Australian Commonwealth were established in the following order: New South Wales, 1788; Tasmania, first settlement 1803, granted colonial independence 1825; Western Australia, first settlement 1829, granted self government, 1890; South Australia, first settlement 1836, granted self government, 1857; Victoria, first settlement 1803, granted colonial independence 1851; and Queensland, first settlement 1824, granted colonial independence 1859. The Northern Territory was first settled by Europeans in 1824, annexed by South Australia in 1863, separated from South Australia to become a territory under Commonwealth control 1911. For a brief time between 1926 and 1931 the Northern Territory was divided into North Australia and Central Australia at the 20th parallel of South latitude.
Discussions between Australian and British representatives led to adoption by the British Government of an act to constitute the Commonwealth of Australia in 1900.
The first federal Parliament was opened at Melbourne in May 1901 by the Duke of York (later King George V). In May 1927, the seat of government was transferred to Canberra, a planned city designed by an American, Walter Burley Griffin. The first session of Parliament in that city was opened by another Duke of York (later King George VI). Australia passed the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act on October 9, 1942, which officially established Australia's complete autonomy in both internal and external affairs. Its passage formalized a situation that had existed for years. The Australia Act (1986) eliminated the last vestiges of British legal authority.