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Place Names: Victoria - Melbourne Suburbs

The Names of Melbourne
How the streets, main roads, suburbs and geographical features got their names.

ABERFELDIE
Aberfeldie is a suburb 9km north-west of Melbourne,. Its Local Government Area is the City of Moonee Valley. At the 2006 Census, Aberfeldie had a population of 3455. Scotsman James Robertson named his property Aberfeldie, located on the corner of Aberfeldie St and Park Crs, after a place in Scotland. When the property was sold in 1888 it became the name of the suburb. The area has tended to attract families, with its abundance of parks, sporting facilities and the Maribyrnong River. There is a range of detached housing from inter war Californian Bungalows to post war dwellings.

ABBOTSFORD
Abbotsford, a residential and industrial suburb, is in the eat of Collingwood, between Hoddle Street and the Yarra River. It was named after a property owned by John Orr in Kew, the bordering suburb over the Yarra River. In the 1850s a land auction for the "Abbotsford township" was promoted, the site being between the Convent of the Good Shepherd and Johnston Street. It was the most attractive part, on the river bank, as west of it was the low-lying Collingwood flat. The western side of Abbotsford has the railway line from Collingwood to Heidelberg (1888) and Princes Bridge to Collingwood (1901). The town hall and other civic buildings (1880s) are next to the railway station.


Essendon Airport

AIRPORT WEST
Airport West is a suburb 14km north-west of Melbourne. At the 2006 Census, Airport West had a population of 6660. Bounded by the Calder Freeway to the south, the Tullamarine Freeway to the east, and the Western Ring Road to the north west, Airport West is so named for its position to the west of Essendon Airport, Melbourne's first general airport now used for light planes, charter and freight since the opening in 1970 of Melbourne Airport located to the north of the suburb. It has the distinction of being the only locality in Australia which does not itself contain an airport to contain the word "Airport."

ALAMEIN
Alamaein is the name of a railway station on the Alamein line. Alamein was the last station to be built on what is now the line of the same name. It was built in 1948 on the reservation of the ill-fated Outer Circle line, the section on which Alamein is now located being closed to all traffic in 1895. The station serviced a new Housing Commission estate that had been opened up to house people that had displaced after the Second World War. The station still bears the name of the estate, which in turn had been named after the battlefield in North Africa.

ALBERT PARK
Albert Park, a residential area with a large regional park and lake, is 3 km. south of Melbourne. It was named after Prince Albert, the Consort of Queen Victoria. There are two Albert Parks, one the large recreational parkland and the other the adjoining residential area which spread southwards from South Melbourne's Emerald Hill in the 1870s and 1880s. The parkland was like much of the land in the Yarra delta, swampy, grassed with sparse tree cover, and with occasional lagoons, some quite large. The lagoon in Albert Park was one of those. The land was used for seasonal grazing, recreational hunting, rifle practice at the Butts (the original name of the Albert Park railway station) and for military training manoeuvres between the Victoria Barracks, St. Kilda Road, and the battery on Port Phillip Bay at the end of Kerford Road. In 1857 a railway line was opened through Albert Park from Melbourne to St. Kilda. A short-lived rail loop from Windsor to St. Kilda (1859-62) passed through the south of the parkland. On 22 July, 1862, the parkland was temporarily reserved from sale, and permanently reserved two years later.

ALBION
Albion is 13 km west from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Brimbank. At the 2006 Census, Albion had a population of 3763. A subdivision of Sunshine, it is bordered on the north by the Western Highway, the south by Forrest St, the west by Kororoit Creek and the east by Anderson Rd. The area was originally called Darlington, until about 1890. The area originally known as Albion lies further east, south of the Western Highway and west of Duke Street, an area now known as Sunshine East. The name 'Albion' derives from the Albion Quarrying Company which operated in the area.

ALPHINGTON
Alphington is a residential and industrial suburb immediately north of the Yarra River, 7 km. north-east of Melbourne. On its west is Fairfield and on its east is Ivanhoe. Farm-size land sales in Alphington coincided with those in the Northcote and Fairfield district in 1840. Most of Alphington was bought by three persons. Most easterly, Thomas Wills bought 71 ha. running down to the river where the Latrobe golf club is now situated. He built the "Lucerne" homestead (1840-1960), but soon disposed of it and built the grander "Willsmere" on the other side of the river in Kew. The westerly purchaser was the Howitt brothers, important Port Phillip and post gold-rush personalities. Howitt thought the "situation delicious and the slopes most graceful." The purchaser of the middle portion was Charles Roemer, who soon on-sold, but his name is commemorated in Roemer Crescent, off Lucerne Crescent.
The purchaser of Roemer's land was Sir William Manning who, recognising the place's potential for a resting place between Melbourne and Heidelberg, laid out a village and named it Alphington after his birthplace in Devonshire. By 1865 Alphington was mainly occupied by market gardens, and vineyards, with a post office, butcher, baker, general store and two hotels, one being the Darebin Bridge. The Heidelberg Road was a route to gold diggings at St. Andrews and in upper Gippsland. The Wesleyan Chapel was built in 1859 and survives as part of the Uniting Church's group of buildings.


Altona beach

ALTONA
Altona is a residential and industrial suburb 13 km. west-south-west of Melbourne. The township is on an indented bay (Altona Bay) on Port Phillip Bay, and the industrial sector extends several kilometres inland. Altona's southern boundary is Skeleton Creek (separating it from Werribee), and its opposite boundary is Kororoit Creek (separating it from Williamstown). The coastal part of Altona is alluvial flats and recent estuarine deposits, with alluvial valleys extending inland along the Kororoit, Cherry and Laverton Creeks. The last two drained into swamps. Inland are newer basalt plains.
In 1842 (or probably before then), Alfred Langhorne leased pastoral land on Altona Bay, and shortly afterwards began building a homestead. The area was then known as Laverton. The homestead became known as "Altona" by the 1860s. The reason for the name is not clear, but in 1843 a neighbour of Langhorne's, R. Wrede, gave his residential address as Altona, Port Phillip Bay. In any event Langhorne's homestead acquired the name "Altona," and it is in Queen Street, Altona, having served as a Council office and a community centre. "Altona" derives from a German village on the River Elbe, later a suburb of the Hamburg seaport.


Anstey station

ANSTEY
Anstey is a railway station on the Upfield line in the suburb of Brunswick. Anstey Station was originally opened as North Brunswick station on the December 15, 1926, however the Victorian Government renamed in honour of Victorian and Commonwealth Parliamentarian, Frank Anstey on the December 1, 1942.

ARDEER
Ardeer is 16 km west from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Brimbank. At the 2006 Census, Ardeer had a population of 2582. Ardeer Post Office opened on 1 December 1953 as suburban development took place and closed in 1979.


High Street, Armadale

ARMADALE
Armadale, a residential area 7 km. south-east of Melbourne, is situated either side of the former municipal border between Prahran and Malvern. It is named after Armadale House, the residence of James Munro (1832-1908), Premier and Attorney-General, speculator and failed land-boomer. Munro was born in Armadale, Sutherlandshire, Scotland.
In 1879 when the railway line was connected between South Yarra .and Oakleigh a station was opened at Armadale. This resulted in a commercial centre around the station and residential subdivisions nearby. A State primary school was opened in 1884. Several large residences in generous grounds were built. Some survive, but mostly in diminished allotments. A tramline along the southern edge of Armadale (Dandenong and Wattletree Roads) was opened in 1928 and along the northern edge (Malvern Road) in 1915. Lauriston Girls' School, near Malvern and Glenferrie Roads, was opened in 1901. Armadale's census population in 1911 was 4,298.

ARTHURS SEAT
Arthurs Seat is a hill and locality on the Mornington Peninsula, within the Shire of Mornington Peninsula, about 75 km south east of Melbourne, Australia. It was named by Acting Lieutenant John Murray when he entered Port Phillip in the ship Lady Nelson in January 1802, for an apparent resemblance to Arthur's Seat hill in Edinburgh (which was his home city). Captain Matthew Flinders climbed Arthurs Seat on 27 April 1802. In 1896, a rough track was made to the summit, and the first resident, farmer and orchardist James Chapman, settled on top of the mountain. A properly graded road was built in 1929 and the lookout tower opened in 1934.[4] The 950 m long chairlift route was built in 1960 and opened on 22 December 1960. It became a popular tourist attraction, with an estimated 100,000 users in 2002 according to the Mornington Peninsula Tourism Council.

ASHBURTON
Ashburton, a mostly postwar residential suburb, is 11 km. south east of Melbourne. The locality's name arose when the station on the Outer Circle railway line (1890} was named Ashburton, at the suggestion of a former local councillor, E. Dillon who had lived in Ashburton Terrace, Cork, Ireland. An unrealised objective of the railway line had been to stimulate residential development, but the locality was best known for the Ashburton forest, overlooking Gardiners Creek, as a site for picnics. The Outer Circle railway, originally from Oakleigh to Melbourne via Fairfield, was abbreviated to spur lines from Camberwell within a few years, northwards to Deepdene and southwards to Ashburton, and no other fixed rail transport was provided for Ashburton. The residential development of Ashburton awaited Melbourne's postwar metropolitan expansion and increased car ownership.

ASPENDALE / ASPENDALE GARDENS
Aspendale is 26 km south-east from Melbourne's central business district. Aspendale was occupied by the Australian Aboriginals for many thousands of years before European settlement. Europeans began farming the area in the 19th century and displaced local inhabitants. When European appropriation began, the land was occupied by the Bunurong people. The geography of the area at the start of European settlement consisted of large sand dune complexes on the coast, and wetland areas inland. The area is flat and low-lying, reaching above sea level by only a few metres. The geography and ecology of the area has undergone radical changes as a result of European settlement. Much of the wetlands have been drained, and only modest remnants of the sand dunes exist today near the beach. Although no wetland areas remain in Aspendale itself, significant wetland areas have been preserved in the adjacent suburbs of Edithvale and Aspendale Gardens and these areas provide a good indication of what Aspendale once would have looked like. Aspendale was home to Aspendale Park racecourse, a horse racing and motor racing track. The suburb's name comes from Aspen, a successful racehorse. Aspendale train station was built primarily to cater towards the racing crowd in the early part of the 20th century. The racecourse closed in the 1920s, and nothing remains of it. Aspendale Gardens Primary School is the newest part of the Aspendale area. The suburb adjoins the Edithvale Wetlands.

ASCOT VALE / ASCOT VALE WEST
Ascot Vale is a suburb 7km north-west of Melbourne. Ascot Vale West Post Office opened on 1 January 1888 and was renamed Ascot Vale around 1893. An Ascot Vale East office was open from 1914 until 1979. Ascot Vale was founded as a dry suburb, but hotels were soon built at the outside corners of the settlement. It is currently the first point of call for all packages imported to Victoria by UPS. Ascot Vale station opened on November 1, 1860 as part of the private Melbourne and Essendon Railway Company line to Essendon. The station closed with the line in 1864 until it was reopened in 1871 under government ownership.

ASHWOOD
Ashwood is 14 km south-east from Melbourne's central business district. Ashwood was named after the suburbs of Burwood and Ashburton, because it appears between the two. Up to the early 1950s, when residential development commenced in the area, Warrigal Road formed the boundary of suburban development, with market gardens, poultry farms and unmade roads to the east. By 1951 the population of Ashwood had risen to an estimated 1500 persons. The Post Office opened on 3 October 1949, but was known as Ashburton East until 1951. Jordanville Post Office in the suburb opened in 1953.

AUBURN
Auburn is a residential area 8 km. east of Melbourne, situated in the Hawthorn area. The area in which Auburn is situated was first called Red Gum Flat. It was well regarded as a source of good clay for brick and pottery products. The name "Auburn" may have come from either or both of two residences built in the 1850s. Auburn Lodge, built by Reverend Henry Liddiard, was on an allotment immediately south of Burwood Road and between Glenferrie and Auburn Roads. To the south of Liddiard's residence John Collings built Auburn House at today's 4 Goodall Street.
In the north-east of the Auburn area early subdividers (i.e. before the coming of the railway in 1882), attempted to market the Rathmines Village. When the railway station was opened the name Auburn overtook other names. The subdivisions in the north-east attracted "gentlemen's private residences."


Avondale Heights fishing platform, Maribyrnong River

AVONDALE HEIGHTS
Avondale Heights is a suburb 14km north-west of Melbourne. Avondale Heights is located on a plateau bounded by a large bend of the Maribyrnong River to the east, south, and west, and to the north by Buckley street. The suburb derives its name from the Avondale Estate. Originally known as Maribyrnong West, when the Council undertook to change the name, postal authorities drew attention to the existence of Avondale in Queensland. The suburb was therefore called Avondale Heights to distinguish it from the Queensland town. Prior to European colonisation of Melbourne, the Wurundjeri Aboriginal people of the Kulin nation moved through the area. Evidence has been found of human occupation for at least 18,000 years. On 10 October 1940, Mr. James White dug up an ancient human skull, (now known as the Keilor Cranium) on the banks of the Maribyrnong River. This skull has been found to be more than 8,000 years and less than 15,800 years old.

AVONSLEIGH
Avonsleigh is 47 km east from Melbourne's central business district. The Post Office opened as Koenig's in 1902, was renamed Avonsleigh in 1911 and closed in 1985. Avonsleigh was first known as East Emerald. Its current name arose from Avonsleigh guest house, close to the Wright stopping place on the Belgrave to Gembrook railway line (now the "Puffing Billy" scenic railway). J.W. Wright was the owner of the guest house. Until the second world war Avonsleigh was mainly occupied for timber production, but clearance for agricultural land occurred in the post war years. By the 1980s residential subdivisions along major roads occurred and a township of several shops developed.

BADGER CREEK
Badger Creek, a rural and urban settlement, is 53 km. north-east of Melbourne and 6 km. south of Healesville. It adjoins the Healesville Sanctuary and the former Coranderrk Aboriginal Station, now the Coranderrk Bushland. Badger Creek was surveyed as a village settlement in 1894, providing blocks of 8 ha. The name possibly arose from the early settlers confusing wombats with English badgers. Another account is that a horse named Badger, owned by one of the pioneering Ryrie brothers, became bogged in the creek. The earliest settlement in the area was the Coranderrk Aboriginal Station which was occupied in March, 1863, the year before Healesville township was surveyed. The Station, of 1,963 ha., had a population of 64 Aborigines, a peak figure of 148 in 1878 and 42 in 1922, the year before it was closed. The Coranderrk primary school was opened in 1890, and was replaced by the Badger Creek school in 1899, teaching both Aboriginal and white children.

BALACLAVA
Balaclava, part of St. Kilda East, is 7 km. south-east of Melbourne. It was named after the battlefield in the Crimean War (1853-6), and has street names such as Nightingale, Inkerman, Raglan and Sebastopol. It is well served by public transport, having trams in Chapel Street (1886) and Carlisle Street (1913) and a train line from Melbourne to Brighton (1859). There is also a busy tram route nearby in St. Kilda and Brighton Roads, running past the St. Kilda town hall (1890), now the council offices of Port Phillip city. The town hall is an impressive building in a garden setting, with a white portico added in 1925. The council library (1973) is in Carlisle Street.

BALNARRING / BALNARRING BEACH
Balnarring is located in the southeastern Mornington Peninsula about halfway between Hastings and Flinders. The name Balnarring is Bunurong in origin and means "camp in open place". The name, however, previously applied to the Parish of Balnarring (which included Merricks) and the town, previously called Tulum, was changed to Balnarring after World War II. Early reports of the area suggested the region was "thick with honeysuckle and sheoak", and that the area from Somers to Point Leo contained "good soil, good grass, and open forest timbered with Gums wattle and She Oak trees". Early settlers were involved in wattle bark stripping and cutting piles and sleepers for shipping to Melbourne via Shoreham to the southwest.

BALWYN
Balwyn is a residential suburb 10 km. east of Melbourne. Balwyn was part of Henry Elgar's Special Survey of 8 square miles (1841), which was subdivided into small farms and grazing runs. One of the subdivisions was bought by a Scots editor and journalist, Andrew Murray (1813-80), in the late 1850s. He built a house which he named Balwyn, approximately on the site of the present Fintona Girls' School in Balwyn Road. Murray planted a vineyard, and reputedly derived "Balwyn" from the Gaelic "bal" and the Saxon "wyn". Other vineyards prospered until the 1890s, and grape vine branches formed part of Camberwell city's crest. Balwyn was in the north of Camberwell city.
The southern part of Balwyn contains Deepdene, which in 1891 had a station on the Outer Circle railway running from Oakleigh to Fairfield via Camberwell. The railway was built with land subdivision sales in view, but its partial closure in a few years dampened prospects. A service continued from Camberwell to Deepdene until 1943, the last steam train service in metropolitan Melbourne, the "Deepdene Dasher". Deepdene's residential development awaited tramline extension in 1916 - northwards along Burke Road to Whitehorse Road and eastwards along Whitehorse Road to Surrey Hills. Further to the north Balwyn had neither train nor tram, and a tram extension along Doncaster Road did not come until 1938. The terminus, however, was short of Balwyn's easterly limit and the areas beyond the terminus (Balwyn North and Greythorn) awaited development in the 1950s and 1960s.

BANGHOLME
Bangholme, situated on the former Carrum Swamp, is between Keysborough and Chelsea Heights, 30 km. south-east of Melbourne. The name comes from a waterhole on the Eumemmerring Creek, somewhat east of the present Bangholme, where Joseph Hawdon pastured stock in 1837. The name of the waterhole, derived from the Aboriginal word Parnham, had various pronunciations, including Baungan. It is thought that the Aboriginal word means hut. In 1860 a lessee of the waterhole area attempted to gain a pre-emptive right to land nearer the middle of the present Bangholme by establishing a homestead and naming it Bangholm, combining "Bangan" (shortened from Baungan) and "holm", Norse for an islet in a river. That was appropriate for the sandy ridges in the swamp which were the dunes of an ancient shoreline. A school was opened in east Bangholme in 1915 on land donated by one of the Keys family who were prominent in Keysborough. A hall was opened in 1931 and a Methodist church in 1935.

BANYULE
The City of Banyule is a Local Government Area located in the north-eastern suburbs of Melbourne. It has an area of 63 square kilometres (24.3 sq mi) and lies between 7 and 21 km from central Melbourne. The Yarra River runs along the City’s south border while the west is defined by Darebin Creek. The City was named after the Indigenous Australian term Banyule or "Banyool", and was originally the name of a locality within the former City of Heidelberg before being adopted as the name of the new council during the amalgamation of local government areas in Victoria. It was formed in 1994 from the merger of the City of Heidelberg with parts of the Shire of Diamond Valley and Shire of Eltham. The area was originally occupied by the Wurundjeri, Indigenous Australians of the Kulin nation, who spoke variations of the Woiwurrung language group.

THE BASIN
The Basin is a rural and residential suburb 31 km. east of Melbourne in the western foothills of the Dandenong Ranges National Park. Several tributaries of the Dandenong Creek pass through The Basin, providing verdant water-course flats surrounded by rising land. The Governor Botanist Ferndinand von Mueller explored the area in 1853, and possibly gave it the name. "The Basin" is shown on a survey plan of 1868, by when settlers had taken licences or made freehold purchases of the land. Notable settlers were J.J. Miller, book-maker and publisher of Miller's Racing Guide and William Chandler, nurseryman and forebear of two local parliamentarians.

BATMAN
Batman is a railway station located in the suburb of North Coburg, on the Upfield railway line. Batman station opened on October 8, 1889 as Bell Park, but was closed in 1903. It was reopened as Batman in 1914, and named after the founder of Melbourne, John Batman.

BAXTER
Baxter is a suburb in the Shire of Mornington Peninsula. It is served by Baxter railway station on the Stony Point greater-metropolitan line. Originally named Baxter's Flat, Baxter was founded by pastoralist Benjamin Baxter, who lived in a property named Carrup Carrup - the Aboriginal name. The property still exists today on what is now the Frankston-Flinders road, as does the original cottage he and his wife Martha lived in. It is now owned by Gateway Family Church who plan to preserve the cottage. Benjamin Baxter died in 1892 and his gravestone, found in the Frankston Cemetery, reads "Benjamin Baxter, late of h. m. 50th regiment. Died at Currup Currup 15 May 1892, aged 87. Also Martha, beloved wife of above 31 January 1906 age 94 years". It was at Baxter's Flat that the railway to Mornington and Stony Point (built in the late 1880s) separated. The station was called Mornington Junction before being changed to Baxter, however its role as a junction ended in the 1980s with the closure of the Mornington line. The early township grew around the railway station and a Post Office named Mornington Junction opened on December 1, 1892 (Baxter from 1918).

BAYSWATER
Bayswater is a residential and industrial suburb 28 km. east of Melbourne. The area was originally part of Scoresby North and settlement began in the 1860s. Many settlers were German. A school was opened in 1874 in a building provided by the Lutheran Congregation. A State primary school was opened five years later. Some distance to the west at The Basin, James John Miller, bookmaker and publisher, had a substantial property named Bayswater House, in recognition of his birthplace. The name Bayswater was given to the school in 1890. When the railway line to Upper Ferntree Gully was opened in 1889 the station at Bayswater was named Macauley because that was the name of the post office. It was however superseded by Bayswater in 1894. The station was one of four from Ringwood  to Upper Ferntree Gully. Today there are eight stations.
By the turn of the century the German community had diminished, The Bayswater district had several orchards and other agricultural holdings, and a populations of nearly 900 at the 1911 census. During the years leading up to the second world war Bayswater acquired a police station, a baby health centre and a shopping centre with a few storekeepers, a butcher, baker, wine saloon and a motor garage. It was patronised by orchardists, poultry keepers and nurserymen. Postwar growth was strongly signalled when Dunlop Rubber established a factory in Bayswater North in 1952 for making aviation products.


Beacon Cove, Port Melbourne

BEACON COVE
Beacon Cove is a locality within Port Melbourne and the City of Port Phillip. It comprises approximately 1100 dwellings in a mixture of low-rise medium density and high-rise housing with a small supermarket, some commercial space, a small number of cafes, restaurants and a gym. It was developed over the decade from 1996 by Australian developer Mirvac, following the collapse of the 'Sandridge City' scheme for a gated community featuring canalside housing. The site was formerly an industrial facility. Beacon Cove features a waterfront promenade, palm-lined boulevards and a layout that allows the retention of two operational shipping beacons. Most of the low-rise housing is arranged around a series of small parks, in a postmodern scaled-down Beaux-Arts plan. This sub-suburb is fashionable and expensive, although controversial amongst some members of the Port Melbourne community as it is of a completely different style to the surrounding areas, with upmarket residences giving the area the name 'legoland' in the Port Melbourne community.

BEACONSFIELD / BEACONSFIELD UPPER
Beaconsfield, forty six kilometres east of central Melbourne on Cardinia Creek, was originally known as Little Berwick. It is immediately to the east of Berwick. A small settlement grew up in the vicinity of Bowman's Inn, a coaching stop on the road to Gippsland. When gold was discovered at Wood's Point in the 1860s, Mrs Bowman employed men to cut a track from Beaconsfield north to the Yarra Track leading to Wood's Point. Miners using Bowman's Track increased her custom considerably. In the 1870s gold was found in the gullies north of Beaconsfield. Timber getters followed the prospectors. The foothills were found to be suitable for orchards and fruit trees, particularly apples and lemons, were planted. In 1881 a railway station was opened on the Gippsland line and named Beaconsfield after the prominent statesman Disraeli, Lord Beaconsfield. The name had already been used for the post office at Beaconsfield Upper for several years but was transferred to the railway station and surrounding settlement.

BEAUMARIS
Beaumaris, a bayside residential suburb, is 20 km. south-east of Melbourne. In 1845 James Moysey leased grazing land in the area and shortly afterwards purchased 32 hectares. He named his property Beaumaris Park, which derives from the Welsh coastal resort where Edward I built the Beau Marais castle. (The reason for Moysey's choice is unclear as he came from Devon.) Beaumaris was beyond the railway extensions to Sandringham (1887) and Mordialloc (1881), but its coastal scenery drew the attention of entrepreneurs. In 1888 a Beaumaris Park Estate was auctioned, a horse tram service from Sandringham was provided and the Beaumaris Hotel was begun.
In 1914 the horse-tram service ended. An electric tram service from Sandringham, to Black Rock was opened in 1919, but the extension to Beaumaris did not come until 1926. It lasted only for five years. A school was opened in the Beaumaris hall in 1914, transferring to a permanent building on a site purchased from a market garden in 1917. Clarice Beckett painted many evocative canvasses of Beaumaris, 1918-35.

BEENAK
Beenak is a bounded rural locality to the north of the Bunyip State Park. Its Local Government Area is the Shire of Yarra Ranges. Beenak Post Office opened on 1 July 1878 and closed in 1951. Its name is of Aboriginal origin.


Puffing Billy Railway, Belgrave

BELGRAVE; BELGRAVE HEIGHTS; BELGRAVE SOUTH
Belgrave South was originally associated with Narre Warren North because mail deliveries came from that direction. The association with Belgrave began in 1908 when mail was delivered from that direction as a result of the railway coming to Belgrave. The area contained several large farms and estates, and in 1914 the Lockwood Estate was subdivided for home sites. The Belgrave South area contained the primary school and a store, but the subdivider provided a store at the Lockwood Estate and named it Belgrave Heights. Two "centres" developed about 700 metres apart, divided by the Zig Zag Road and mutually hostile local ambitions. Belgrave South kept the school but Belgrave Heights got most of the churches and the Mechanics' Institute/Progress Hall. Belgrave Heights also has several church camps and convention centres. Each has small shopping areas.

BELL
Bell is a railway station located in the suburb of Preston, on the Epping railway line. Bell station opened on October 8, 1889 as Preston - Bell Street. It was renamed Bell in 1905. The station has the only monosyllabic name in the entire Melbourne suburban rail system (depending upon how one says Jewell). It was thus named because it is on Bell Street.

BELL PARK
Bell Park is a residential suburb between Geelong North and Bell Post Hill. It was named after the Bell Park homestead, built by an early settler, John Bell. Part of the homestead is preserved in the buildings at the Grace McKellar Centre for Rehabilitation and Extended Care. The residential settlement of Bell Park began in the 1950s, and many of the new settlers were postwar European migrants. Two of the larger groups were Croatians and Italians. Many built make-do bungalows until they earned enough to build better finished dwellings.

BELL POST HILL
Bell Post Hill is a residential suburb north-west of Geelong, adjoining the Midland Highway or Ballarat Road. Its name is thought to have arisen from a look-out post or warning bell on a post which was erected on a prominent rise which has views over the surrounding countryside and out to Corio Bay. The earliest record of the look-out of warning bell was of an event in 1837 which involved conflict with local Aborigines. The prominent rise became the site of the Morongo homestead, built in 1859. The two storey stone building is on the Register of the National Estate. In 1926 the property became the Presbyterian Morongo Girls' School but because of financial difficulties it was disposed of by the Uniting church in 1996 to the Kardinia International College.

*BELLFIELD
Bellfield is 9 km north-east from Melbourne's central business district. Bellfield is primarily residential but includes the Banyule Waste Recovery Centre? on Waterdale Road and sporting fields in Ford Park and Liberty Park Reserve on Banksia Street towards Darebin Creek.

*BENNETTSWOOD
Bennettswood is a locality located in Burwood, in Melbourne's eastern suburbs.

BENTLEIGH
Bentleigh is a residential suburb 12 km. south-east of Melbourne, immediately to the north of Moorabbin.. Bentleigh and Bentleigh East lie along the axes of Henry Dendy's Special Survey of 1841 when he took eight square miles extending inland form the Brighton shoreline. The northern boundary was North Road, the southern boundary South Road and the eastern boundary East Boundary road. Centre Road was a convenient centre line through the survey. Bentleigh's shopping centre runs along Centre Road, and Bentleigh East's centre is at Centre and East Boundary Roads.
The area was known as East Brighton before being named Bentleigh in 1908 after the Victorian Premier, Sir Thomas Bent. East Brighton was occupied by stock runs until the early 1850s, when the increasing metropolitan population resulted in market gardens being established. The sandy soil was easily worked and there were springs in several places, part of the chain of water courses extending through the area to Cheltenham.


Blackburn Lake, Blackburn

BERWICK
Berwick, once a small agricultural town, now an outer suburb, is located 43 kilometres south-east of Melbourne. The area was part of Cardinia Creek run and was named by an early leaseholder, Robert Gardiner, after his birthplace, Berwick-on-Tweed. Land was subdivided in 1854 and soon a store, post office, hotel and other businesses were established. Wheat, barley and potatoes were grown on the fertile soil, with a flour mill operating for a while. Later dairy farming and cheese making became the main activities. The Berwick Agricultural Society started in 1848 as the Mornington Farmers' Society and is one of the oldest farmers' society in Victoria. The construction of a coach road from Melbourne to Gippsland, and then the railway from Melbourne in 1877, spurred continued development. Wilson's quarry, opened in 1859, supplied ballast for the railway line. A spur line connected with Berwick railway station to transport the metal. The quarry was an important industry, working fairly continuously over the years. The original quarry was given to the City of Berwick and has been developed as a botanic park.

*BITTERN
Bittern is a small country town on the Mornington Peninsula, Victoria, Australia. Its Local Government Area is the Shire of Mornington Peninsula. It is served by Bittern railway station on the Stony Point greater-metropolitan line. Bittern Post Office opened on 5 January 1891.

BLACK ROCK
Black Rock is 18 km south-east from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Bayside. At the 2006 Census, Black Rock had a population of 5796. The suburb was named after Black Rock House, a grand residence built by Charles Hotson Ebden in 1856, who had taken the name from Black Rock, Dublin. Ebden was an early Port Phillip pastoralist as well as being a businessman and parliamentarian representing the seat of Brighton in the Victorian Parliament. Black Rock House is on the Register of the National Estate. The northern part of the suburb between Beach Road and Bluff Road was one of the early estates in the parish of Moorabbin developed by Josiah Holloway in the 1850s. Named Bluff Town, sales were slower than in other areas and the suburb grew slowly.

BLACKBURN
Blackburn is a residential suburb 17 km. east of Melbourne, between Box Hill and Nunawading. About 400 metres south of the township is the Blackburn Creek, thought to have been named after an early settler or after James Blackburn, the designer of Melbourne's Yan Yean water supply. The first settlement was along the creek and was called Blackburn Creek.
A hotel was built on the site of the present Blackburn Hotel in Whitehorse Road in 1861, serving travellers to Healesville and the Gippsland goldfields around Woods Point. Another was opened near the creek in 1865. A post office was opened in 1876 and the Box Hill to Lilydale railway in 1882. The 1880s saw a spate of development, partly induced by the railway and strongly promoted by subdividers. The most active was the Freehold Investment and Banking Company which acquired thirty small farms and laid out a model township distinguishable by the triangular street design south of the railway station. The company is credited with building the public hall (1888), and damming the creek to form the Blackburn Lake (1889).


Koonung Creek

BLACKBURN NORTH
Blackburn North is a residential area 17 km, east of Melbourne extending from Blackburn to the Koonung Creek. The rural background to Blackburn North was much like that of Blackburn's. Its residential development came as urbanisation spread from Blackburn. In 1954 the primary school was opened, on the southern border of the area. The Blackburn technical school (now a secondary college), is in Blackburn North, and was opened in 1959. Another primary school on the eastern boundary, Springview, was opened in 1964.

BLACKBURN SOUTH
Blackburn South, a residential suburb 17 km, east of Melbourne. Its residential development preceded that of Blackburn North although both are equidistant from Blackburn and its railway line. The reason appears to be that Blackburn South has two eastwards arterial roads, Canterbury Road and Burwood Highway, whereas Blackburn North had only the sub-arterial Springfield Road.

BLAIRGOWRIE
Blairgowrie is in the Shire of Mornington Peninsula. Blairgowrie is located near the western tip of the Mornington Peninsula, between Sorrento and Rye, and is one of many popular holiday destinations for Melburnians along this narrow peninsula strip. Blairgowrie was named after the Burgh of Blairgowrie, 2nd largest town in Perth and Kinross, Scotland. A Post Office was not opened until 1 November 1947.

BONBEACH
Bonbeach is 31 km south-east from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Kingston. At the 2006 Census, Bonbeach had a population of 4992. Bonbeach Post Office opened on 19 November 1922 (closing in 1923, then reopening in 1926 on the opening of the railway station) and finally closing in 1985. The name is somewhat descriptive, having been coined by developers when the area was first subdivided for residential use.

BONEO
Boneo is located south of and inland from Rosebud on the Mornington Peninsula. Its Local Government Area is the Shire of Mornington Peninsula. It is dominated by the Boneo Flats, where market gardens and pastures are located. It contains a recreation reserve, community hall and primary school. The name is of Aboriginal origin.

BOOROONDARA
The Parish of Boroondara, covering the aces comprising Kew, Hawthorn, Box Hill and Camberwell, was named by the Government surveyor, Robert Hoddle. In 1856 the Boroondara Road Board was created, a precursor Of local government, with responsibilities for the areas administered by the later Camberwell, Hawthorn and Kew municipalities It is thought that Boroondara is an Aboriginal Word meaning shady place. Hawthorn and Kew were created separate municipalities in 1860 and the remaining area of the Road Board became Boroondara shire on 17 November, 1871. The name was changed to Camberwell and Boroondara on 16 May, 1902, and Boroondara dropped from the title on 15 May, 1906. Boroondara continued to be the name of the cemetery in Kew, a park on the former Outer Circle railway and a primary school in Balwyn was given that name in 1957. On 22 June, 1994, the State Government amalgamated Camberwell Hawthorn and Kew cities to form Boroondara city.

BORONIA
Boronia is a residential suburb 29 km. east of Melbourne near Ferntree Gully. Land selections began in the Boronia area in the 1870s, and the Ringwood to Upper Ferntree Gully railway was built in 1889, passing through Boronia, but not providing it with a station. The nearest station was Bayswater, now the immediate city-side neighbour. In 1920 a railway station was opened at Boronia, at which time the place name was five years old. The name arose when the Fern Tree Gully shire council asked the local councillor, Albert Chandler, to propose a name for the locality where he had established a large horticultural nursery in 1895. At the time Chandler grew Boronia plants as one the main nursery products, and the Council agreed with the name he suggested.
Boronia railway station was neatly situated within twenty miles of Melbourne, attracting concessional trainfares for workmen. The Boronia landscape in turn attracted housing subdividers, Chandler offering his Boronia Station Estate four months after the station was opened. Others followed, one even offering a free block for the purchase of one over 50 pounds. Five years before, when Boronia was named, a progress association had been formed, and its early task was lobbying for the railway station. It built a public hall on land donated by Chandler and gained the opening of a primary school in 1923. Boronia's first general store opened in the same year. Between 1921 and 1923 three churches were opened, the first being the Church of Christ where Chandler's son Gilbert, was Sunday School superintendent. During the 1930s Boronia's population increased despite the depression. There was an ample supply of land for housing, and city families could move out and live relatively cheaply. Land remained plentiful for the postwar expansion of metropolitan Melbourne.


Box Hill

BOX HILL
Box Hill, a residential area 14 km. east of Melbourne, is between Camberwell and Blackburn. Box Hill is one of those suburbs that started as a country town and was then swallowed up by the Melbourne metropolis. It's 'centre' on Whitehorse Road still has that country-town feel to it, with a wide tree-filled median strip with the obligatory civic monuments and war memorials.
About one-third of the western part of Box Hill was in Henry Elgar's Special Survey of 8 square miles (1841). In 1875 it was part of the Nunawading shire, which stretched from Camberwell to Ringwood. After 1850, settlers came to Box Hill as Crown lands were subdivided and sold. There was a three-chain wide road planned as the route to Gippsland from Melbourne. The road ultimately went as far as Healesville via Lilydale, but traffic along it encouraged the building of a hotel at Box Hill in 1853. Its owner named it the White Horse hotel, and the name was bestowed on the three-chain road. The hotel was on the corner of Whitehorse and Elgar Roads, the latter running along the eastern side of Elgar's Special Survey. Ballyshannassy, 4 km. south of Box Hill was the only official surveyed town in the area, but it was small. In 1861 a post office was opened at Box Hill, the first official use of the name. The postmaster proposed the name, derived from Box Hill in Surrey, England, near his birthplace.
Agriculture around Box Hill was in an early stage of development as fire-wood cutting gave way to orchards, vineyards and mixed farming which gave meagre returns. The extension of the railway form Camberwell to Lilydale in 1882 included a station at Box Hill but there were also stations at Canterbury and Surrey Hill, to the west. They attracted subdivisions and development ahead of Box Hill. Growth came, though, with a school opening in Box Hill in 1887 and the Nunawading shire deciding to meet in the Box Hill court house.

BRAESIDE
Braeside is a predominantly industrial suburb with a metropolitan park, 26 km. south-east of Melbourne and immediately east of Mordialloc. The name came from a farm property, Braeside, owned by members of the Keys family (see Keysborough), east of the present Epsom Training track, Mordialloc. Braeside is on the former Carrum Swamp, which was gradually drained and brought into year-round farm land from 1868. The Braeside farm was sold by the Keys family to Dr. Arthur Syme, the son of David Syme, owner of The Age newspaper. Syme developed it as a horse-breeding property. Adjoining Braeside there were small closer-settlement blocks (1908-9), which together with other local population resulted in a primary school being opened in 1915. The area was used for dairying and market gardens.

BRANDON PARK
A locality around the border of Glen Waverley and Mulgrave used to describe the area around Brandon Park Reserve. Brandon Park was the name of a residential subdivision centred around Brandon Park Reserve. It is believed the park and subdivision were nsmed after one of the developers.

BRAYBROOK
Braybrook is a suburb 11km west of Melbourne, its Local Government Area is the City of Maribyrnong. At the 2006 Census, Braybrook had a population of 6940. Braybrook Post Office opened on 1 December 1860. It has been an industrial suburb for most of its existence. It derives its name from the property of an early European settler.

BRIAR HILL
Briar Hill, 18 km. north-east of Melbourne, is a residential and light industrial area bout a kilometre east of Greensborough. Its name possibly derives from the type of tangled vegetation which covered the hill which ascends to its north. Its growth was tied to Greensborough's, which was a township set in rural surrounds until the 1970s. A Briar Hill Progress Association agitated for a primary school in 1924, and it was opened in 1927.


Brighton Beach

BRIGHTON
Brighton is a residential bayside suburb 11 km. south-east of Melbourne. In 1840 the British Government's Land and Emigration Commission approved procedures for the sale of "Special Survey" land allotments of eight square miles (5,120 acres at one pound each - 2,072 ha.), chiefly as a revenue-raising arrangement. There were three such sales in the area of future metropolitan Melbourne before special surveys were stopped, they being Dendy's at Brighton (March, 1841), Unwin's at Bulleen and Templestowe and Elgar's at Box Hill. All were five miles from the centre of Melbourne, as required by regulations made by the New South Wales Executive Council.
Henry Dendy (1809-81) employed Jonathan Binns Were (1809-85), later a prominent stockbroker, as his agent. His special-survey land was bounded by the coastline, North Road, East Boundary Road and South Road. A town was surveyed in the Spring of 1841, defined by the crescent-shaped street layout which remains today, and subdivided allotments offered for sale. Purchasers were few, a financial depression came and Dendy's scheme for emigration and land sales failed. He died a pauper and the Were family acquired the land for highly profitable resale after the depression.
Dendy's town site was initially marketed as Waterville, perhaps because an early settler at Port Melbourne called his area Brighton, probably after the coastal watering place in Sussex, England. However, Dendy soon renamed his land the Brighton Estate, and Dendy's site for his own home was named "Brighton park". Dendy's choice of land was done carefully, avoiding the swamp at Elsternwick and consisting mainly of good undulating land. After the depression sales of land resulted in Brighton becoming the third most populated town in Port Phillip (after Melbourne and Portland), by 1846. The farming land was sought to supply agricultural produce for Melbourne, so as to lessen imports from Tasmania. Brighton attracted wealthy residents who wanted generous building sites and the prospect of sea bathing.


Ford's Broadmeadows car manufacuring plant

BROADMEADOWS
Broadmeadows is a residential and industrial suburb 16 km. north of Melbourne and until 1994 it was a municipality. The lightly wooded landscape between the Merri and Moonee Ponds Creeks attracted pastoralists in the 1840s. In 1850 a Government survey laid out a township in an area along the Moonee Ponds Creek valley, now known as Westmeadows, but then named Broadmeadow. An Anglican church was built in 1850, and the church, police station and Broadmeadows hotel (now Westmeadows Tavern), in Ardlie Street were the first village centre. East of the old village is today's Broadmeadows, for which the early town centre was Campbellfield. In 1857 the Broadmeadows District Road Board was formed.
A primary school was established by the Anglican church in 1851, becoming a State school in 1870 (now Westmeadows). In 1872 the railway line was extended form Essendon to Seymour, creating a station about 2 km. east of the village. At the height of the landboom in 1889 another line was opened from Coburg, joining the Seymour line at Somerton. A station was provided at Campbellfield. These lines tended to draw subdivision and speculation eastwards, away from the Broadmeadows village. Hence the naming of the local municipal council as Broadmeadows shire on 27 January, 1871, did not reflect where the district's future prosperity lay. The village was isolated westwards, separated from the railway areas by open grass lands. Broadmeadows consisted of farms, many of them dairying, and the few large holdings were subject to closer settlement subdivision during the early 1900s.

BROOKFIELD
Brookfield is 43 km west from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the Shire of Melton. At the 2006 Census, Brookfield had a population of 3168.

BROOKLYN
Brooklyn is 10 km west from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area are the Cities of Hobsons Bay and Brimbank. At the 2006 Census, Brooklyn had a population of 1583. Brooklyn is largely an industrial suburb, with a small pocket of low-density residential in the south. Brooklyn is notorious for industrial pollution and sewer issues due to the high clay content in the soil causing trouble with the foundation.


Brunswick Street, Brunswick

BRUNSWICK
Brunswick is an inner-urban suburb 6 km. north of Melbourne. It is bounded on the west and the east by the Moonee Ponds and Merri Creeks respectively. Brunswick was subdivided into farm allotments which were sold in 1839. Most purchasers were speculators who looked forward to further subdivision. The allotments ran east and west from the main thoroughfare, Sydney Road. One of them was resold to Thomas Wilkinson and a partner. They named the property Brunswick Park, in honour either of the late Princess Caroline of Brunswick (late wife of King George IV), or in honour of the marriage of Queen Victoria to Prince Albert of the royal house of Brunswick. The streets each side of Wilkinson's property are Victoria and Albert. Wilkinson became Brunswick's first mayor.
Within ten years of Brunswick's farming activities the gold rushes caused a demand for building material. Bluestone was found mainly throughout the eastern half of Brunswick and clay west of Sydney Road. An early site of brick and pottery products was at the village of Phillipstown, just east of Grantham Street (1852). A school was opened there in 1853. Sydney Road was the main route to several gold fields, and attracted commercial and civic development. In 1840 Wilkinson donated land in Sydney Road for Brunswick's first (Wesleyan) church, which provided the first school in 1849. The Presbyterians opened a primary school in 1855 and the Catholics in 1860. In 1875 the Presbyterians and the Wesleyans combined to open a larger school, which became the Albert Street or Central Brunswick School.

BRUNSWICK EAST
Brunswick East is an inner-urban suburb 6 km north of Melbourne. It lies between Lygon Street and the Merri Creek, and adjoins Carlton North and Fitzroy North at its southern border. Brunswick East is within 900 metres of Sydney Road which formed the spine of Brunswick when it was first settled. An early industry in Brunswick East was bluestone quarrying, and there were numerous farms. In 1882 land subdivision centered on Evans Street was released for residential purposes. The swampiness of some of the land was modified by drainage works, and a primary school near Lygon Street (named Brunswick South), was opened in 1886. Another subdivisional sale at the northern end of Lygon Street occurred in 1887, and another school opened in 1888, and the East Brunswick Omnibus Company began its horse bus service along Lygon Street the next year.
Lygon Street became a successful shopping strip, wider than Sydney road, and retaining its period character one-hundred years later. An old stone quarry was filled in and became Fleming Park, the home of the East Brunswick cricket and football clubs (1919). In 1916 the tram along Lygon Street was electrified, putting the site of Brunswick's first textile factory, Prestige Hosiery (1922), within easier reach of its workforce. A returned servicemen's housing area was begun in 1923, identifiable by the Maori Street names, probably in acknowledgment of the Anzac War tradition.


Brunswick West

BRUNSWICK WEST
Brunswick West is a residential suburb 6 km. north of Melbourne. It lies between the Moonee Ponds Creek and central Brunswick with the Royal Park lands at its southern border. It was the last area to be settled residentially in the former Brunswick municipality, being somewhat remote from north-south public transport services. Settlement in fact predated the opening of the Melville Road tram line in 1925-7. The area's first primary school, west of Hoffman's brickyard, opened in 1888. An early, although unsuccessful, residential subdivision was in the north-west, at the Hopetoun Estate in 1892. Ten years later the area came under a State Government Closer Settlement Scheme, attracting about 200 residents. It was named Moonee Vale. The south-west was more attractive, being closer to Melbourne and less flood prone. Subdivision lots were larger then in Brunswick central and Brunswick East, and the predominant house design was the Californian bungalow. The last area to be subdivided into its present allotments was the Closer Settlement area at Moonee Vale, during the 1940s and early 1950s.


Bulla

BULLA
Bulla is a township with rural surrounds, immediately north-west of the Melbourne Airport, Tullamarine, and 25 km. north-west of Melbourne. The township is on Deep Creek, a tributary of the Maribyrnong River, and the creek has carved a sinuous course through a valleyed landscape. An early settler in the Bulla township area was William "Tulip" Wright, former Chief Constable of the Melbourne township. He built the "Settlers Home", later the "Bridge Inn" near Deep Creek in 1843. In the same year the "Woodlands" homestead was built by William Greene, to the east at Oaklands Junction. It is on the Victorian Heritage Register, along with stables and outbuildings, situated in the Gellibrand Hill Park. The Bulla village was surveyed in 1851. The name is derived from an Aboriginal word of uncertain meaning. A church and a government school were opened in 1854.


Banksia Park, Bulleen

BULLEEN
Bulleen adjoins the eastern side of the Yarra River, opposite Heidelberg, 13 km. north - east of Melbourne. The land adjoining the river which curves around as a northern boundary of Bulleen, is open space comprising public and private recreational facilities. The remainder of Bulleen is residential, where it merges with Templestowe Lower and Doncaster. It is flanked by the Koonung Koonung Creek on the south, on the other side of which is Balwyn North.
The name Bulleen is derived from a Yarra billabong, characterised as Lake Bolin Bolin, thought to be Aboriginal for a place of loneliness. That does not square with the billabong flood plains being an important food source for the Aboriginal population. The name was given by Frederic Unwin to his Special Survey of eight square miles in 1841. The land was suitable for dairying and cereals, and formed several prosperous holdings with spacious homesteads. Being bordered on all but its eastern side by watercourses, with only two bridges (from Heidelberg and Balwyn North), Bulleen was cut off from central Melbourne. There was no public transport which came near it. Bulleen retained its rural landscape until well into the present century, and the few land subdivisions sold poorly. Bulleen was a source of fresh vegetables for the armed forces during the second world war, but dairying predominated from 1900s to the 1930s. Residential subdivisions began to be taken up in the 1950s, and a primary school was opened in 1957.


Bundoora Homestead

BUNDOORA
Bundoora is an extensive suburb comprising residential, community-service and educational areas 15 km. north-east of Melbourne. It is bordered on the west by the Darebin Creek and on the east by the Plenty River, Greensborough and Macleod (going from north to south). Bundoora contains part of Kingsbury (on its western side) and Mont Park on the other side. The name cones from Keelbundoora the parish enclosing Bundoora and adjoining areas. Bundoora is thought to be Aboriginal for a plain where kangaroos live, where one may camp or top of a plain. Land subdivided into about 400 ha., lots was auctioned in 1838, and a census three years later showed that most areas were being farmed.
The first centre of settlement in Bundoora was Janefield, on Plenty Road, thought to be named after the burial place of Jane Brock who died in 1851. She was the wife of James Brock who was the son of John Brock who bought a flour mill on the Plenty River at Janefield. The mill was important because much of the lightly forested land was suitable for wheat. A Church of Scotland was built on Brock's land and a school incorporated with it in 1848. There were also an inn and a post office (1853). Janefield township was virtually abandoned after closure of the mill (1862) and school (1877), and agricultural pursuits continued until 1912 when the Victorian Government acquired the land, which it rented to the Red Cross Society in 1920 as a sanitarium for tuberculosis patients. Thus began the complex of buildings and grounds which became the Janefield Colony for children.

BUNYIP / BUNYIP NORTH
Bunyip is located on the Gippsland railway line, 77 kilometres east of Melbourne. The name Bunyip, or Buneep, originates from a creature of Aboriginal myths supposed to inhabit the swampland. The name was used for the area as early as 1847 when a route was surveyed from Dandenong into Gippsland. The Buneep Buneep run, taken up in 1851, was bordered by the Bunyip and Tarago Rivers. A township, known as Buneep, was surveyed beside the Bunyip River. An improved route to Buneep was surveyed in1859. However, by the 1860s another track, Old Sale Road, was opened further south. New Bunyip was situated where the princes Highway now crosses the Bunyip River. The New Bunyip Hotel was built here in 1867.

BURNLEY
Burnley is a residential suburb in the southern and eastern parts of Richmond, 4 km. east-south-east of Melbourne. Half of the Burnley area is public space and ground occupied by the Burnley campus of the Victorian College of Agriculture and Horticulture. The area was named after William Burnley, pioneer land purchaser in Richmond, local councillor and parliamentarian.
In 1838 the area approximating Burnley's present open space lying in a loop of the Yarra River was reserved as the Survey Paddock. It is bisected by Swan Street (1880s), trisected by railway lines diverging at Burnley (to Hawthorn, 1861 and to Glen Iris, 1890), and skirted on its eastern edge by the Yarra Boulevard (1930s) and on its southern edge by the South Eastern Freeway (1962). The Horticultural Society of Victoria was granted 12 ha. in the Survey Paddock in 1862 for experimental gardens, mainly for acclimatization of exotic fruits, vegetables and flowers. The site was taken over by the State Department of Agriculture in 1891. The balance of the Survey Paddock became Richmond Park, containing the Picnic railway station, east of the present Burnley station, as the entry to a landscaped pleasure ground.


Burnside retirement village

BURNSIDE
Burnside is 22 km west from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the Shire of Melton. At the 2006 Census, Burnside had a population of 5792. Burnside is located beside the upper end of the Kororoit Creek which is famous for still having healthy populations of native reptiles, including Tiger snake, Eastern Blue-tongued Lizard, Common snakeneck turtle and Eastern brown snake.

BURWOOD
Burwood and Burwood East extend eastwards from Melbourne, beginning at a distance of about 11 km. from Melbourne's centre and ending 17 km. from the centre, roughly from Warrigal Road to Springvale Road. Burwood's origins were in the village of Ballyshanassy, which was about one kilometre east of Warrigal Road and which was surveyed in 1858. Ballyshanassy's location is identifiable by the Burwood Cemetery, police station and state school (1865-1992, Victorian Heritage Register), along with an unusual road layout off the south side of Burwood Highway. The commercial hub, however, grew around the intersection of Warrigal Road and Burwood Highway, which survives as a strip shopping centre. "Burwood" spread one kilometre westwards from Warrigal Road when the Hartwell Railway Station was renamed Burwood in 1909.
Ballyshanassy surrendered its name to Norwood, which in turn surrendered its name to Burwood in 1879. Burwood was the name of a house now known as Invergowie, built by Sir James Palmer in 1852 in Hawthorn West. The track to present-day Burwood was Burwood Road (Hawthorn), Camberwell Road , and Toorak Road which becomes the Burwood Highway. The name travelled eastwards along the track.

CAIRNLEA 3023
Cairnlea is 17 km north-west from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Brimbank. At the 2006 Census, Cairnlea had a population of 6070.
The former Albion site became open grassland after European settlement but later, from 1939 to the mid 1980s, it was a defence manufacturing site. The suburb is a new estate, and has only been developed since 1999, with development of the new suburb to finish in mid-2005. The suburb features several manmade lakes and has implemented a suburb-wide stormwater recycling system that feeds all the lakes. Formerly there was a large government explosives factory on the site of the estate, however this factory closed in the 1990s.

CALDER PARK
Calder Park is 22 km north-west from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Brimbank. Wedged between the Calder Freeway, and the Bendigo rail line, Calder Park is a somewhat abnormal suburb in that no residential dwellings are constructed within its bounds, the only structure being a chapel situated adjacent to the Calder Park Raceway. This is located in the northern half of the suburb, with the southern half comprising open fields, adjoining neighbouring Taylors Lakes. Calder Park takes its name from Calder Highway (now Freeway).

CAMBERWELL
Camberwell is a residential suburb 9 km east of Melbourne, between Hawthorn and Burwood. Until the 1850s the area was occupied for grazing, being described as "light sandy country, timbered with gum and oak," Roads were rudimentary, but at one point three roads intersected, and in 1853 an inn was erected at one of the corners. Its owner recollected that several roads converged at Camberwell Green, London, and he called it the Camberwell Inn The Intersection, known as the Burke Road or Camberwell Junction. is on the western boundary of Camberwell, all the district adopted the name of the inn.
Immigrants and former gold diggers took up farms in the Camberwell area, producing hay, fruit and vegetables. In the 1860s there were two small settlements, one around tile inn and the Anglican church and another to the east at Hartwell about 2 kin. away. The district's first school (1858) and post office (1862) were at Hartwell, but the school closed when one was opened in 1867 a few hundred metres from the junction. By the 1870s Camberwell's neighbour, Hawthorn, had a substantial population, but Camberwell remained an area of small farms with a few sites for fine residences at its more elevated northern end. It was at that end in 1882 where the railway was extended from Hawthorn to Camberwell I A year later the line was extended to Lilydale. In 1891 a north-south railway line from Oakleigh to Fairfield was opened, crossing the earlier one at East Camberwell. It was the unsuccessful Outer Circle line, The railway lines attracted land subdivision in a landscape that was picturesque and free of industry. The Burke Road shopping centre between the junction and the railway station began in the 1880s, Residential land was generously proportioned, relatively cheap and within convenient commuting distance of Melbourne.


Campbellfield industrial area

CAMPBELLFIELD
Campbellfield, a residential and industrial suburb 17 km. north of Melbourne, is situated east of Broadmeadows. It is on the Hume highway and its eastern boundary is the Merri Creek. Two families named Campbell, apparently unrelated, bought farm properties in the area in the 1840s. The land was lightly wooded, easy for grazing, and close to the Merri Creek. Other settlers of Scots descent brought a strong Presbyterian tradition to the area. The Scots church was built on Sydney Road in 1842, and replaced by the present bluestone structure in 1855 (on Register of the National Estate and Victorian Heritage Register). A primary school was opened in 1846, and the site remained in use until disturbed by the widening of the Hume Highway in 1961.
By the 1860s Campbellfield had a village on the Sydney Road with three hotels and a disused flour mill. The flat country of Campbellfield was suited to pastoral pursuits and remained unaltered until the late 1880s when there was the prospect of a railway line from Coburg to join the main line to Seymour at Somerton. Campbellfield remained a village patronised by small farmers. It had two hotels, a store, bakery, confectioner and a smithy. The hotels and the Presbyterian and Methodist churches constituted the social centres, apart from sports matches in a paddock (c.1900). In 1951 the Housing Commission took control of land in Broadmeadows and Campbellfield for a housing estate, and in 1956 commenced the disposal of a large wedge north of the village between the railway line and the highway, for the Ford motor car factory.

CANTERBURY
Canterbury is an older residential suburb 10 km. east of Melbourne, noted for spacious residences. It adjoins Camberwell on its east and north , and its early settlement and subdivision into market gardens and orchards accompanied Camberwell's. Canterbury was named after Viscount Canterbury, Governor of Victoria, 1866-73. Before being named Canterbury the area was part of Balwyn. When the railway was extended from Hawthorn to Camberwell in 1882. and to Canterbury and beyond the following Veal residential subdivisions were stimulated The Canterbury landscape was undulating, elevated to the east and, with the West Creek, pleasantly well watered The late 1880s saw hood land prices and speculative profit. Melbourne merchants and professionals built in Canterbury and commuted by train to Melbourne By 1891 nearly all of Canterbury was subdivided for housing. but still mostly not built on A shopping strip was built along Maling Road beside the railway station.


Lygon Street, Carlton

CARLTON
Carlton is a residential, commercial and educational area adjoining the northern boundary of central Melbourne at Victoria Street. The subdivision and settlement of Carlton came later than that of Fitzroy and Collingwood.. By the gold rush, 1851, two thirds of those suburbs were subdivided, often in a haphazrd way calculated to maximize profit on the resale of land. When Robert Hoddle, Government surveyor, came to survey Carlton in 1852, care was taken to lay out streets in an orderly grid, with reserves for open space and religious institutions. His survey was bounded by Royal Parade, Grattan Street, Nicholson Street and Victoria Street, but with the University provided for in a reserve north of Grattan Street. The churches' precinct was in Queensberry Street, between Lygon and Rathdowne Streets (Anglican, Free Gaelic and Wesleyan), and one block north in Pelham Street (Catholic). There were no school or hospital reserves, but Lincoln Square, Argyle Square and Carlton Gardens were shown. The two squares provided a distinctly English tone for the new suburb.
Carlton, thought to have been named after the residence of the Prince of Wales, was relatively elevated, and attracted several notable homes. Justice Redmond Barry lived in Rathdowne Street, equidistant between the City Court and the University of which he was the first Chancellor in 1955. By 1860 Carlton had five schools of which one, in Faraday Street, was a National School (1858), and ran continuously until 1972. In 1878 eight hectares were set aside in the Carlton Gardens for a building for Melbourne's International Exhibition in 1880-1. The international event was Melbourne's sixth exhibition, and its grandest. The building with its prominent dome became the venue for exhibitions, motor shows, home shows, the first federal Parliament and countless public examinations for secondary and tertiary students. In 1887-8 tram lines were opened along Swanston Street, Elgin Street, Rathdowne Street and Nicholson Street.

CARLTON NORTH
Carlton North is a residential suburb 4 km. north of Melbourne. In 1853 both the Melbourne General Cemetery and a penal stockade came to Carlton North. Melbourne's first cemetery at the Flagstaff Gardens was over-full by 1849, and a 8 ha. site was laid out to the north. By 1853 the very obvious increase in population persuaded the Government to also close Melbourne's second cemetery (now the Queen Victoria Market site), to all except those claiming a grave or vault there. The 8 ha. site in Carlton North was doubled and the resulting Melbourne General Cemetery was laid out by the Government Botanist, Ferdinand von Mueller.
The stockade (called the Collingwood Stockade, as Carlton was not named in 1853), was opened beside a bluestone quarry. These sites are now the Lee Street primary school and the Canning Street neighbourhood reserve respectively. Carlton North's geological structure fortunately had the basaltic land ending just east of the cemetery, which is on mudstone or sandstone. Carlton (south of Grattan Street) was subdivided and the stockade made an asylum for the next seven years. Carlton North was subdivided in 1869 between Princes and Fenwick Streets. The final subdivision was at Princes Hill, north of the cemetery, in 1876-9. The settlement was almost all residential, brick, and much of it two storeyed or terraced. The standard was a step up from many of the timber cottages in Carlton.


Carnegie

CARNEGIE
Carnegie is a residential suburb 12 km. south-east of Melbourne on the railway line between Caulfield and Oakleigh. The area was originally known as Rosstown after William Ross, an entrepreneur who constructed a railway line through the area from Oakleigh to Elsternwick. In May, 1909, the railway station was renamed Carnegie, allegedly with the support of residents and the progress associations who thought it would be an inducement to obtain funds from the American Carnegie Foundation for a library. Neither did the funds appear nor is there contemporary documentary evidence of the idea, but no better explanation has been given.
A large part of pastoral Carnegie was the Leman Swamp, a place for peat extraction and, in 1874, a proposed site for sugar beet processing which needed a reliable water supply. By 1876 Ross, who was the promoter of the sugar beet industry, owned or leased all the land presently known as Carnegie. The Rosstown Hotel was operating by 1882 and the primary school opened in 1887. By the turn of the century estates were being opened up in the vicinity of the railway station.

CAROLINE SPRINGS
Caroline Springs is 25 km west from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the Shire of Melton. At the 2006 Census, Caroline Springs had a population of 10,880. Caroline Springs is a large residential suburb that was launched in 1999 by the Urban Land Corporation. Developed by Delfin, the suburb's popularity was spurred by an extensive advertising campaign promoting the lifestyle benefits of the area. Caroline Springs has now met its neighbouring suburb, Taylors Hill to the north.


Kananook Creek, Carrum Carrum

CARRUM SWAMP
This former swampland is occupied by Bangholme, Braeside, Carrum Downs, Chelsea Heights, and Keysborough. Parts of Aspendale, Patterson Lakes and Seaford are also on the former swamp. Carrum Swamp's waters came from the Dandenong Creek (with headwaters in the moist Dandenong Ranges, and the Eumemmerring Creek with headwaters at Narre Warren. The swamp occupied 5,260 ha., extending almost from Mordialloc to Frankston, and had a water catchment of 737 sq. km. In its natural state it was covered with dense ti-tree, and it had ineffective outlets to Port Phillip Bay by the Mordialloc Creek and the Kananook Creek. The land was, however, useful for Summer pasture, and sections were purchased on the 1850s.
An early squatting party in the area called its station Garen Gam, thought to be Aboriginal for boomerang. Another rendering of the Aboriginal words is Karrum Karrum. An 1864 map made by the Hydrographic Office called the swamp Garrum, which would also be a probable forerunner of Carrum. An alternative but unlikely source of the name is an ancient English settlement called Carrum in Arthurian legends.

CARRUM DOWNS
Carrum Downs is a residential area 34 km. south-east of Melbourne adjoining the bayside suburb of Carrum. Most of the area is on the former Carrum Swamp. Carrum Downs was a farming area until the 1980s, with the social centre bring the primary school which was opened in 1909. In 1945 the Anglican Church's Brotherhood of St. Laurence began the building of an elderly person's community about 300 metres from the school. The Carrum Downs village added married and single persons' cottages and hostel accommodation, set in a mostly heath or bushland environment.
The main residential area is south of the Brotherhood village, with sites for three primary schools and a drive-in shopping centre (1994) with forty shops. There are several neighbourhood reserves and a linear park along Boggy Creek. In the north of Carrum Downs, beyond the school, is the part of the South Eastern Purification Plant for the treatment of sewage, around which several farms continue to function.


Spring Racing Carnival Caulfield Racecourse

CAULFIELD
Caulfield, a residential area with a prominent metropolitan racecourse, is on Dandenong Road, 10 km. from Melbourne. Until 1994 Caulfield was also a municipal city. The origin of the name is uncertain, although John Caulfield, a builder who arrived in Melbourne in 1837, has been suggested as a source. The name Caulfield was in use on maps around 1857, generally in the vicinity of the present racecourse.
In 1859 horse racing was held on a rough bush track and the Melbourne Hunt Club held occasional meetings in Caulfield. A racecourse was laid out on the site where the Hunt Club kennel was kept. In 1876 the Victorian Amateur Turf Club was formed and obtained the site for its metropolitan race course. The first Caulfield Cup was run in 1879.
Land survey maps for the Caulfield district were published in 1853, and the first sale of Crown allotments was in 1854. The Caulfield Roads District was proclaimed in 1857. In 1860 a shirt-lived school was established by four church congregations, and in 1864 a school was opened which became the Caulfield primary school. In 1865 the population of the district was estimated at 508.

CHADSTONE
Chadstone, a residential suburb 13 km. south-east of Melbourne, is best known for having metropolitan Melbourne's largest super-regional shopping centre. The name comes from Chadstone Road, which was laid out in 1912-13 in Malvern East. The road name probably came form the Chad stone church, north of Malvern Hills, England. The stone church came about by St. Chad ordering the seventh century King Wulf to build a stone churchto expiate his guilt for murdering his two Christian sons.
Chadstone was an early postwar suburb bounded by Belgrave Road, Dandenong Road, Warrigal Road and Gardiners Creek. Because of changes to postcode boundaries "Chadstone" doubled in area by extension east of Warrigal Road to Huntingdale Road by the early 1980s. Within a decade the Chadstone postcode was restricted to east of Warrigal Road., absorbing areas previously better known as Holmsglen and Jordanville. The original Chadstone was thus put in the Malvern East postcode, satisfying many residents who preferred the cachet of Malvern being applied to their houses, with implications for improved values.


Chadstone Shopping Centre

*CHATHAM
Chatham is a railway station located in the suburb of Surrey Hills, on the Lilydale and Belgrave railway lines. Chatham station opened on April 1, 1927, with the current island platform only. Platform 3 was provided in the 1970s, with services on the third track from East Camberwell extended through the station to Box Hill in 1971.

CHELSEA HEIGHTS
Chelsea Heights is a residential suburb 30 km. south-east of Melbourne, inland from and adjoining the bayside suburb of Chelsea. The name Chelsea was proposed by a local resident for the new railway station when it was opened on the Caulfield to Frankston line in 1882. Chelsea Heights is situated on an ancient coastal sand dune, which was formerly surrounded by the Carrum Swamp. Parts of the area were leased for grazing - particularly during the Summer - in the 1850s, and one settler gave his address as the Islands of Wannark Laddin, a name which persisted at least until 1866 when it was printed on a hydrogrpahic map of Port Phillip Bay. The so-called islands were the dunes raised above the lower swamp lands.
In 1890 a primary school was opened in the area - then called Carrum North - because children had otherwise to wade through swamp to reach Mordialloc. In 1912 the area was subdivided and named Chelsea Heights. Its census population the year before was 230. In 1964 the school's name was changed from Carrum North to Chelsea Heights, which roughly corresponds with the time when the subdivisions were attracting residential development. A kindergarten, infant-welfare centre sand shops were opened.


Victoria Golf Course, Cheltenham

CHELTENHAM
Cheltenham is a residential suburb 18 km. south-east of Melbourne adjoining the bayside suburbs of Beaumaris and Mentone. Its name came from the Cheltenham Inn, opened by Charles Whorral from Cheltenham, Gloustershire, England, in 1853 in the place known as Two Acre Village (1852). The land-owner, Josiah Holloway, who subdivided the land into two-acre lots formed a northwards track, now Chesterville Road, from the Brighton Road (now Nepean Highway). By 1865 Cheltenham had two hotels, a mechanics' institute, a post office and coach or omnibus services to Brighton, Mornington and Melbourne. The lightly timbered and grassed countryside was much cultivated by farmers and market gardeners, and the district's estimated population was 250 persons. Cheltenham's position on the railway line after 1881, as well as on Nepean Highway, brought a steady gain in population.

CHIRNSIDE PARK
Chirnside Park, formerly West Lilydale or a part of Mooroolbark, is a suburb 33 km. east of Melbourne. The original settlement of Chirnside Park was centred on the Mooroolbark Park homestead and grazing property which had a succession of owners from 1845 until 1921 when it was purchased by George Chirnside. The Chirnside family sold Werribee Park, the headquarters of its empire, transferring their stud herds and contents of the Werribee mansion to Mooroolbark Park. George Chirnside died in 1941 without a direct male descendant, and trustees and later a company held the property. In 1956 Community Centres Pty. Ltd. obtained Lillydale shire's approval for subdivision of the land, and five years later gained the title. The company in conjunction with the estate agents Willmore and Randell named the subdivision Chirnside Park in 1962, which included a country club based around the Mooroolbark homestead. The country club includes an extensive golf course.

CHRISTMAS HILLS
Christmas Hills is a rural locality 37 km north-east of central Melbourne, between Kangaroo Ground and Yarra Glen.. It was occupied for grazing by 1842 and a shepherd named David Christmas became lost. He was found at a rise which became known as Christmas Hill, and the name was given to the district. Unlike neighbouring areas Christmas Hills did not have goldmining or significant amounts of agricultural land, although the One Tree Hill on its western side was a mining site. Nevertheless it helped numerous settlers who earned income from firewood as their selections were cleared. In 1884 a primary school was built, and three years later the district's population was boosted by a temporary workforce employed on building an aqueduct from the Watts River weir to Preston reservoir.

CLARINDA
Clarinda is a residential locality in Clayton South, 17 km. south-east of Melbourne. As a locality Clarinda predates Clayton South, a Presbyterian church being opened there in 1886. At that time the pace was known as Bald Hills, a name preserved to the present day in the Bald Hills reserve.
Clarinda, predominantly an elevated sandy location, provided a view of Port Phillip Bay. It had a mixture of market gardens (on the better soil) and open heath lands. When a primary school was opened in the church in 1899 within a year it was renamed Bayview, to avoid confusion with Bald Hills in the Ballarat area. The name was finally changed to Clarinda in 1912. The census population in 1933 was 189. Clarinda continued to be a market gardening area with the typical post office, school and church until the mid 1950s when residential housing began to be built. A golf links was overtaken by housing. Additions were made to the school in 1953 and 1957.

CLAYTON
Clayton is a residential and industrial suburb 18 km. south-east of Melbourne on the Oakleigh to Dandenong railway line. The area was first occupied for farming purposes in the 1850s. The first township was on Dandenong Road where Clayton North is now situated. The construction of the railway line about one kilometre south of Dandenong Road in 1878 prompted the start of a second township where the line crosses Clayton Road. The origin of the name, however, is from a property near the station, Clayton Vale, owned by John Clayton during the 1860s-70s.
In 1862 a primary school was opened at the corner of Dandenong Road and Clayton Road, to serve the whole of the Clayton district. It was renamed Clayton North in 1954 when another primary school was opened closer to Clayton central. Clayton's rural lands and relative proximity to Melbourne attracted two institutions at the turn of the century: the Talbot Colony for Epileptics on land later occupied by Monash University, Clayton North, and a Women's Convalescent Home. Apart from that the community consisted of farms, three hotels, two churches, a tennis court and a few shops. Market gardens, fruit growing and a municipal abattoir were the leading industries.


Garden in Clematis

CLEMATIS
Clematis is a small township in the Dandenong Ranges, 42 km. east-south-east of Melbourne and 6 km. east of Belgrave. The first significant settlement at Clematis was O'Connor's Paradise Hotel (1880) at the junction of Wellington and Belgrave-Gembrook Roads. The place was known as Paradise until confusion with a place of the same name near St. Arnaud caused residents to change to Clematis, an endemic creeper plant, in 1921. The Paradise Hotel remains a landmark. Clematis was the third stopping place on the Belgrave to Gembrook narrow-gauge railway, now the "Puffing Billy" scenic railway.

CLIFTON HILL
Clifton Hill is a residential suburb 4 km north-east of Melbourne, separated from Collingwood by Alexandra Parade and the Eastern Freeway. An early landowner, better known in Richmond, was John Docker, who owned Clifton Farm in 1841. A land speculator, John Knipe, later named the area Clifton Hill.
The Melbourne City Council operated a basalt quarry in Clifton Hill, between Yambla Street and the Merri Creek, in the 1850s, continuing until the 1950s. Most of the other land was held by the Crown for agistment purposes, and Government land sales began in 1864. Residential settlement ended the use of Clifton Hill for the burial of sewage in the 1870s. It was the more salubrious part of Collingwood council's area, having elevated land with larger houses and two reserves. Mayors Park and Darling Gardens. It had about seven houses per acre compared with fifteen per acre in Collingwood, south of Alexandra parade. Most were red brick and terra cotta tile compared with weatherboard and iron roofs in Collingwood. The railway line connected Collingwood and Heidelberg until a link between Princes Bridge and Collingwood was opened in 1901. Of more commercial significance was the cable tram (1887), which brought the Smith Street shops within easier reach. A local shopping strip grew along the tramline in Queens Parade.

CLYDE / CLYDE NORTH 3978
Clyde is 48 km south-east from Melbourne's central business district.
Clyde North is 46 km south-east from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Casey. Clyde North is centred around Berwick - Cranbourne Road and was the original Clyde township before it moved to the area around the railway station to the south. Clyde Post Office opened on 25 January 1864. In 1915 it was renamed Clyde North, when Clyde Railway Station office was renamed Clyde.


Coburg towards the city

COBURG
Coburg, a residential suburb 8 km. north of Melbourne, was also a municipality from 1874 to 1994. In 1837 the government surveyor, Robert Hoddle, surveyed the Coburg area between the two creeks, subdividing it into allotments of between 53 ha. and 287 ha. A village reserve was marked out where the former Pentridge Gaol and Coburg cemetery are now situated. Among the first purchasers were John Pascoe Fawkner (a Melbourne "founder"), Faquhar McCrae (magistrate and speculator) and Arundel Wrighte (squatter and speculator). Fawkner had two lots, totalling 517 ha. A road to Sydney was marked out along the western side of the village reserve.
Some allotments near the Sydney Road were subdivided as small farms, and the village reserve was named Pentridge in 1840, probably after Pentridge, Dorset. A Sydney Road Trust was formed in 1840, principally involving McCrae and Fawkner who were antagonistic to each other. McCrae built La Rose (now Wentworth House, at 22 Le Cateau Street), in 1843. In addition to the Pentridge village there were villages called Bolingbroke to the west and Newlands to the north. In 1850 the Port Phillip authorities chose Pentridge as a site for a penitentiary, sufficiently remote form Melbourne and on a road with nearby road-making materials to keep the felons employed. In 1859 the Pentridge District Road Board was formed, changing its name to Coburg on 21 January, 1869. The change came from residents wanting to dissociate their place name from the gaol, and Coburg was chosen because of the Royal visit by Prince Alfred, Duke of Saxe Coburg. By 1870 there were 1,300 people in Pentridge village and surrounds and 645 in the gaol (including warders and their families).
Coburg was proclaimed a shire on 24 December, 1874. The most populous trade or profession was warder (80), followed by 60 farmers or market gardeners, 54 quarrymen and 28 retailers. Market gardens were near the Merri Creek and most farmers grew hay for Melbourne's increasing numbers of horses. In 1884 the railway line from Melbourne to Coburg was opened, the station being close to the village. A tram service to Moreland, south of Coburg village, began in 1887. The transport links provoked a boom in residential land subdivisions, predominantly in the south of the shire.

COBURG NORTH
Coburg North, a residential area 10 km. north of Melbourne, contains the localities of Batman, Merlynston and Newlands. Coburg North comprised two allotments, each of about one square mile, in the subdivision made in 1839 by the government surveyor, Robert Hoddle. They were divided by the Merri Creek, the western part being quickly subdivided into twenty-five acre blocks for resale. The eastern part became the site of the Coburg district's second village, Newlands, over the Merri Creek from the Pentridge village. The Newlands section was favoured by frontages to the Merri Creek and to its tributary, Edgars Creek. It was distant from rail and tram services and retained a community of market gardeners, dairymen and poulterers until the second world war. The farms were also a source of pollution of the recreational lake reserve on the Merri Creek, which was closed to swimming in 1932 when a child died from an infected cut.


Creek near Cockatoo

COCKATOO
In the steep foothills of the Dandenong Ranges, 48 kilometres east of central Melbourne, lies the township of Cockatoo. In the 1850s, prospectors searching for gold bestowed the name Cockatoo Creek, supposedly because of large numbers of cockatoos there. When land was selected in the 1870s, the name was retained. The country was mountainous and heavily timbered, making clearing difficult. A store was opened in 1895 to serve the scattered community.
In the late 1890s, a narrow gauge railway was constructed from Ferntree Gully, thirty four kilometres east of Melbourne, to Gembrook, a further six kilometres east of Cockatoo. Three sawmills were soon established in the Cockatoo area, transporting their timber out by rail. The Belfry Mill built a wooden tramline to the Cockatoo railway siding. Around the turn of the century, the locality was known as Devon. In July 1901, the original name, Cockatoo Creek, was restored, due to pressure from local residents. The Railways Department shortened this to Cockatoo and it gradually came into general use.

COLDSTREAM
Coldstream is 36 km north-east from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the Shire of Yarra Ranges. At the 2006 Census, Coldstream had a population of 2403. The township developed around the railway station after the railway arrived in 1888, the Post Office opening on 7 February 1889. In 1909, Dame Nellie Melba bought Coombe Cottage at Coldstream. The house is located at the current juncture of Maroondah Highway and Melba Highway (named in her honour) and is now the home of Melba's granddaughter.


Bendigo Hotel, Collingwood

COLLINGWOOD
Collingwood, an industrial and residential suburb, is 3 km. north-east of Melbourne. It was named after Admiral Lord Collingwood, who fought at Trafalgar. Along with Fitzroy, Collingwood was subdivided in 1838 into allotments each of about 12 ha. At that time both districts were generally known as Collingwood, although the Fitzroy part was differentiated by being known as upper Collingwood or Collingwood west. It was the elevated part, as the land falls away to a plain about 200 metres east of Smith Street, otherwise known as the Collingwood flat. Stormwater drained from the elevated part along today's Alexandra Parade and thence south-east from Smith Street to near the Victoria Park football ground into the Yarra River. The entry to the Yarra was a swampy area.
Buyers of the 12 ha. allotments set about further subdividing them for resale, and by 1854 nearly all but the swampiest parts were cut up. Settlement intensified after the gold rushes, and the area was exempt from building control laws, which encouraged the concentration of cheap houses on small blocks of land. The flat topography made subdivision easy. Increasing urbanisation in elevated Fitzroy increased stormwater run-off, and east Collingwood was frequently flooded. The impervious subsoil caused stagnant sheets of water. Calls for drainage were neglected by Melbourne City Council, which had jurisdiction over Collingwood. On 24 April, 1855, Collingwood became a municipality. It was called East Collingwood until 1873, when it was proclaimed a town. The Yarra River on Collingwood's east attracted industry. In 1840 John Dight hewed out a mill race through the basalt rocks in the river near where the Merri Creek joins it. He operated a mill for flour making, with varying success. A more productive use was harnessing the water for wool washing.


Coode Island

COODE ISLAND
Coode Island, an almost uninhabited industrial area, is 4 km. west of Melbourne. It was formed in 1886 when canal was cut through the Sandridge swamp to provide a straightened stream for the Yarra River. The boundaries were the canal on the south, the Maribyrnong River on the west and the Yarra meander on the north and east. Its area was 97 ha. It was named after Sir John Coode, an English harbour engineer who was engaged by the Melbourne Harbor Trust to select the optimum route for the canal as part of the Port of Melbourne.
Coode chose the canal route so as to avoid dangerous tidal ebbs and inflows that would occur along one that went straight from the Yarra River docks to Hobsons Bay. Inflows endangered flood-prone land upstream as far as Gardiners Creek, by the banking up of stream waters. The route also ensured that the Yarra waters would discharge into the river mouth, scouring the bay and reducing silt deposition. The meander was known as Fishermens Bend or Humbug Reach (1887). Later "Fishermens Bend" came to be applied to the land opposite Coode Island, on the other side of the canal, and even to Sandridge Beach, Port Melbourne west, which became Garden City.
By 1909 the marshy surface of Coode Island was being filled for reclamation. Its chief use was as a quarantine station for stock, and buildings were erected there in the event of the need for a bubonic plague sanitarium. Much of the native vegetation had been replaced by exotics, probably from abandoned ships' ballast. By the late 1930s the meander was almost abolished and the "island" joined to West Melbourne, but the name continued to be used. In 1929 the construction of Appleton Dock on the south-east corner of Coode Island was begun. Swanson Dock was excavated out of the island near its south-west corner when containerized cargo services began in the 1960s.

COOLAROO
Coolaroo is a residential and industrial suburb 18 km. north of Melbourne, west of the Ford motor car factory, Hume Highway, and between Broadmeadows and Somerton. The name is thought to be derived from an Aboriginal word for brown snake. Coolaroo was part of a large area acquired by the Housing Commission in 1951 for a housing estate. Construction in the Coolaroo area began in 1966 and the first primary school was opened the next year. A later State primary school has become St. Marys Coptic Orthodox College. Couurage Breweries Ltd. opened a brewery in 1968. It later became a Tooth Brewery and then a factory for Australian Consolidated Hosiery. Larger factories to the north include Pratt Industries. When Coolaroo was first laid out it extended westwards to include the area now named Meadow Heights. Its western boundary is now Pascoe Vale Road.

COTTLES BRIDGE
Cottles Bridge is 30 km north-east from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the Shire of Nillumbik. At the 2006 Census, Cottles Bridge had a population of 963. The area, previously known as Back Creek, was named after Thomas Cottle, who settled in the area in the 1870s. From the 1950s onwards, various artists settled in the area, most notably Clifton Pugh AO, who established the Dunmoochin Artists Society there in 1953.

CRAIGIEBURN
Craigieburn is 26 km north from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Hume. At the 2006 Census, Craigieburn had a population of 20,784. Craigieburn’s first people were the Wurundjeri Indigenous people. The locality takes its name after an old bluestone inn that catered for travellers along the Old Hume Highway between Sydney and Melbourne. The Old Hume Highway still exists, albeit in a state of disrepair, and is now a continuation of Mickleham Road. raigieburn Post Office opened on 26 February 1866.

CRANBOURNE / CRANBOURNE EAST / CRANBOURNE NORTH / CRANBOURNE SOUTH / CRANBOURNE WEST 3977
Approximately forty six kilometres south-east of Melbourne lies the rapidly growing town of Cranbourne. The earliest settlers were the Ruffy brothers who squatted on Mayune run in 1836. They conducted the Cranbourne Inn, which may have been named after a town in Berkshire or after Viscount Cranborne. There were few Aborigines in the district, but the discovery of numerous artefacts indicates that the area was fairly intensively occupied before European settlement. The early pastoralists grazed cattle and grew barley and wheat. The township was surveyed in 1856, where a small community already existed on Mayune, then leased by Alexander Cameron. The track into South Gippsland also passed through here. From the 1860s, selectors were able to purchase portions of the large runs. The town was gazetted in 1861. Soon a school, churches, another hotel and postal service were established in the township. A Road District was created in 1860 and a Shire proclaimed in 1868. A Shire Hall was erected about 1875. Cranbourne was briefly famous in 1860 when several meteorites were discovered in the area. The largest was sent to the British Museun where it is still exhibited in the meteorite collection. Models of the meteorites are on display in the town.

CREMORNE
Cremorne is a small suburb 2 km south-east from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Yarra. At the 2006 Census, Cremorne had a population of 1396. Cremorne's charm is in its rather chaotic mix of uses and the unique character resulting from being 'walled in' by main roads and railways on all sides. Cremorne takes its name from the Cremorne Gardens, an amusement park which occupied a riverfront location in the western half of Cremorne for a period in the mid 19th century. They were established in 1853 by James Ellis who had earlier managed gardens of the same name on the banks of the Thames at Chelsea in London. Although a largely residential area in its early history, the banks of the Yarra were home to many offensive industries such as tanneries and the Richmond Power Station which opened in 1891. Into the 20th century Cremorne became increasingly industrial. Large manufacturing complexes were built including the Bryant and May and Rosella factories. In the mid 20th century light industry flooded into Cremorne with the construction of hundreds of small to medium factories which were occupied by the rag trade, mechanics, printers and small engineering businesses.


Stony Point station near Crib Point

CRIB POINT
Crib Point is a suburb in the Local Government Area of the Shire of Mornington Peninsula. Crib Point is served by three railway stations: Morradoo, Crib Point and Stony Point, the latter of which is the terminus of the greater-metropolitan Stony Point line. The locality is named after a hut built there by J and R Hann.

CROXTON
Croxton is a residential area in Northcote and Thornbury 7 km. north-north-east of Melbourne. It is best known for the Croxton Park Hotel in High Street, which was established in 1850-1 as the Old Pilgrim Inn, which was the first hotel opened in the Northcote district. In 1865 a new proprietor of the Pilgrim Inn put aside an adjoining site for athletic contests and horse riding, and in 1869 a syndicate of new owners named the establishment Croxton Park, said to be the name of a fashionable English racing rendezvous. Croxton Park was between high Street and St. Georges Road.
In 1915 the football club moved to a new venue, and Croxton Park's best days were over. The prospect of housing subdivision beckoned, however, as trams had been running on a reopened High Street service since 1901. The Croxton Park racecourse, called the Fitzroy Racecourse, was opened on the other side of St. Georges Road in 1891, becoming one of John Wren's pony tracks. It was closed in 1931 and remained a wasteland until taken for postwar housing. Between the 1911 and 1933 censuses for the Northcote municipality the population increased nearly two-and-a-half times. This period coincided with the residential settlement of Croxton, where houses were mainly double-fronted weatherboard.

CROYDON
Croydon is a residential locality 27 km. east of Melbourne, between Ringwood and Lilydale. The name came into existence in the 1880s, and was the name of the shire when the western part of Lillydale shire was severed in 1961. Croydon was a shire, and then a city until 1994. Croydon was first known as White Flats, and the centre of settlement was Brushy Creek which had churches and a hotel. (Brushy Creek was so named because of the tea tree which grew along its banks. It formed the eastern boundary of the municipality.) There was a Cobb and Co. coach run from Kew to Brushy Creek, along the Whitehorse Road, in the 1870s, but the centre of activity moved south-west when a station was put on the railway line to Lilydale in 1882. The name given to the station was South Warrandyte because of the approximate association of the area to Warrandyte about 7 km. northwards. The name did not meet with approval, and it was changed to Croydon at the suggestion of Gregory Lacey, the former owner of the land on which the station was built. His wife had been born in Croydon, Surrey, England.

CROYDON NORTH
Croydon North is a residential area 27 km. east of Melbourne. In the early days of subdivision Luther College and the Rudolf Steiner school established campuses in the Warranwood area. As the extreme east of Croydon North, on Maroondah Highway, is Brushy Park reserve, a reminder of the district's first point of settlement when the Brushy Creek cattle run (1840s) and Cobb and Co. coach stopping place (1870s) existed. Croydon North has several neighbourhood reserves, the Croydon golf course and primary schools at Warranwood, Croydon Hills and Croydon North. Residents depend on shopping facilities or further afield. Further north are the more sparsely settled Warrandyte  and Wonga Park.

DALLAS
Dallas, a residential suburb in the northern part of Broadmeadows, is 17 km. north of Melbourne it was named after the Victorian Governor, Sir Dallas Brooks, who held office form 1949 to 1963. Most of the housing in Dallas was built by the Housing Commission between 1961 and 1970. A primary school was opened in 1963 and another (Dallas North) in 1965. Before the area of Dallas was taken over by the Housing Commission it consisted of small farms and a district reservoir built by the Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Works in 1924 to reticulate water to Broadmeadows.

DANDENONG
Dandenong is situated 31 kilometres south-east of Melbourne on the outskirts of the city. The name is thought to be a corruption of an Aboriginal word meaning lofty mountains, and referred to the ranges which overlook the area. The country is flat to undulating and was originally densely forested with red gum.
Joseph Hawdon established a pastoral run on Dandenong Creek in 1837, overlanding the cattle from Sydney. Soon a few timber cutters and a police camp were also located there. By 1850, the whole area had been taken up for grazing. Dandenong Creek was first bridged in 1840. A road was made from Melbourne, making Dandenong, by the late 1850s, an important staging post for travellers into Gippsland. It became known as the 'gateway to Gippsland'. A township was surveyed in 1852. Milling of the red gum timber became an important industry, and charcoal burning, tanning, quarrying and brick making also flourished. A stock market was established in 1866. By 1861, there were 40 houses in the township housing 193 people. Dandenong Shire was proclaimed in 1873. The Australian Handbook records the progress of the town by 1875.

DAREBIN
Darebin is a residential locality 8 km. north-east of Melbourne, immediately west of Ivanhoe. It is situated on the Darebin Creek a tributary of the Yarra River with headwaters at Woodstock. The Darebin Creek was shown on a 1839 survey plan, defining the western border of the Parish of Morang. A map of Warringal (Heidelberg Village) had a Darebin Street, in the same year. It is thought that the name is derived from an Aboriginal word meaning swallow (bird).
In 1845 the Darebin hotel was opened on the north side of the bridge over the Darebin Creek. The building is incorporated in the Australian Paper Mills property . A school was opened in the Anglican church in 1853 at the corner of Waterdale and Upper Heidelberg Roads. An early property owner, Thomas Bear, had a property and house named Rockbeare, and the name was in use before 1859. Rockbeare Park (part of the Rockbeare property), on the east side of Darebin Creek was entrusted to the Heidelberg shire in 1888 and is joined by a footbridge to the Darebin Parklands. Until 1888 the north-eastern suburbs had no rail connection to Melbourne. In that year lines from Heidelberg to Collingwood and then from Collingwood via a westerly loop to Melbourne were opened. Part of the Rockbeare property, north-east of the present park, was subdivided into 88 lots when the railway line was opened.

DARLING
Darling is a railway station located in the suburb of Malvern East, on the Glen Waverley railway line. Darling station opened on March 24, 1890, with electrification reaching the station in 1922. The line though the station was originally built to link Burnley station to the Outer Circle line and on to Oakleigh. The outer part of the line beyond Darling closed on December 9, 1895, and was not extended to Glen Waverley until 1930.


Deepdene Uniting Church

DEEPDENE
The south west part of the suburb of Balwyn is known as Deepdene. In 1891 it had a station on the Outer Circle railway running from Oakleigh to Fairfield via Camberwell. The railway was built with land subdivision sales in view, but its partial closure in a few years dampened prospects. A service continued from Camberwell to Deepdene until 1943, the last steam train service in metropolitan Melbourne, the "Deepdene Dasher". Deepdene's residential development awaited tramline extension in 1916 - northwards along Burke Road to Whitehorse Road and eastwards along Whitehorse Road to Surrey Hills. Further to the north Balwyn had neither train nor tram, and a tram extension along Doncaster Road did not come until 1938. Deepdene primary school was opened in 1915. The Camberwell Grammar School, at the southern edge of Deepdene, occupies "Roystead", which was a name given to one of the stations on the Outer Circle. Deepdene has an active strip shopping centre along the Whitehorse Road tramline, and further east Whitehorse Road shops are situated in Balwyn.
The name recalls Deepdene, a property built by early European settlers, which in turn was named after a large house near Dorking in Surrey, England.

DEER PARK
Deer Park is 17 km west from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Brimbank. At the 2006 Census, Deer Park had a population of 12,152. The suburb was originally named Kororoit Creek, after the creek running through the suburb but was renamed after the Melbourne Hunt Club used the area to house their stock of game deer. The original Hunt Club building still stands on the Western Highway, next to the Deer Park sports oval and is now a community centre. Following the discovery of gold in Ballarat and Bendigo, to the west, there became a great demand for explosives. Deer Park was chosen as the site of Melbourne's first explosives factory, the Albion Explosives Factory, in the 1870s. In 1928, Imperial Chemical Industries of Australia and New Zealand (ICI) took control of the factory. With labour shortages and a large demand for products during the post-war boom, ICI commenced housing development in Deer Park to attract workers to the area and many of the surrounding streets are named for localities in the UK, where ICI had operations.

DELAHEY
Delahey is 20 km north-west from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Brimbank. At the 2006 Census, Delahey had a population of 8721. Delahey originally contained several farming properties. The Government acquired the land in the mid- to late-1980s for resubdivision as mostly residential properties. The suburb is named after William Delahey, who whilst still a baby, had arrived from Ireland with siblings and parents Henry Delahey and Mary (nee Dodd) in June 1840. Mr. William Delahey had been connected with the Keilor Shire Council for eighteen years and was elected as president during the year 1882/83. The suburb's name was formally adopted in 1994.


Portrait of Derrimut by Benjamin Duterau, 1837, State Library NSW

DERRIMUT
Derrimut is a newly developed suburb 18 km west from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Brimbank. At the 2006 Census, Derrimut had a population of 1501. It is named after Derrimut, a nineteenth century Aboriginal Elder. Derrimut Post Office opened on 1 June 1866 in the rural area, but closed in 1918. The area was home to the "Mount Derrimut" field station of the University of Melbourne from 1964 to 1996.

DIAMOND CREEK
The creek is a tributary of the Yarra River joining it at Eltham. The Creek's headwaters are in the Kinglake ranges, just beyond St. Andrews. Its name probably came from crystalline minerals observed on the bed of the creek. The township of Diamond Creek is 23 km, north-east of Melbourne, just above Eltham, where Arthurs Creek joins Diamond Creek. Settlement was attracted to it rather later than the more open areas of the Plenty River and the Yarra River, and the first white inhabitants were mostly timber getters and paling splitters. Gold seekers opened up the Caledonia diggings further upstream in 1855, which were named after the Caledonia run (1841) situated near where the Diamond Creek township was later created.
In 1863 the Diamond Reef was discovered resulting in substantial gold mine workings, which coincided with the formation of the township. A post office, Methodist church and a school were established by the following year. In 1886-7 the township was surveyed and named Nillumbik - the name of the Parish and the town's town name which continued to be used until the turn of the century. The area became a mixture of bushland and small farms, and orchards had a period of strong prosperity from the mid 1880s to about 1912. A horticulturist society was formed in 1884.

DIGGERS REST
Diggers Rest is a town 31 km north-west from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the Shire of Melton and City of Hume. At the 2006 Census, Diggers Rest had a population of 2,381. Diggers Rest began life as a stopping place on the road to the Bendigo goldfields, hence its nsme. The Post Office was opened on 18 June 1860. Caroline Chisholm started a women's shelter in the area. The town grew in the 1870s and 1880s and became a postal village with a general store, post office, weighbridge, mechanics' institute and a chaff mill.


Gartside Bros Cannery, Dingley West, 1932

DINGLEY
Dingley Village, between Springvale South and Moorabbin Airport is a residential and industrial suburb 23 km. south-east of Melbourne. It was Dingley before being renamed Dingley Village in the 1980s. In 1856 Thomas Attenborough bought land in the area and named his house Dingley Grange, after Dingley Hall which had existed near the town of Melbourn in his native Northhamptonshire, England. A farming community developed, relatively remote from either the bayside or Gippsland railway lines, moving into market gardens and poultry to supply metropolitan markets. There was no identifiable centre to the area apart from Christ Church (1873) at the corner of Centre and Old Dandenong Roads, with its attractive architecture and bell tower. A family of five brothers - the Gartsides - solved the problem of vegetable gluts by opening a cannery in about 1920. The cannery employed up to fifty local people. They donated land for the primary school which opened in 1925. In 1936 the Kingswood Golf Club, Dandenong, opened its new course at Dingley.


Docklands

DOCKLANDS
Docklands is a redevelopment site (commenced in 1997) of 220 ha. of land and water at the western end of Melbourne's central business district. Most of the land in Docklands was originally marsh, known as Batman's lagoon. An exception was Batman's Hill, a wooded knoll on the north bank of the Yarra River, west of Spencer Street. In 1852 the Government granted 20 ha. of land for a railway terminus for proposed private railways to Williamstown and Echuca. They did not eventuate in the way intended, but the railway to Hobsons Bay, Port Melbourne, was opened from Batmans Hill station in 1854. The hill also served as a protective barrier for a powder magazine to its west. By 1863 rail traffic had increased, requiring the goods area to be extended, and two years later the hill was removed. Further extensions of the railways resulted in the goods areas being enlarged westwards as land was reclaimed.
In 1892 Victoria Dock was opened, concentrating much of the Port of Melbourne's maritime freight next to the railway yards. West of the dock the Moonee Ponds Creek was used as a canal access for coal for railway locomotives. Coal was also unloaded for the West Melbourne Gas Works (west of today's Charles Grimes Bridge Road), which operated from 1855 to 1970. By the early 1900s the Victoria Dock/North Wharf area included transport companies, cool stores, freezing works, wool stores and shipping agents. Victoria Dock handled 90% of Victoria's imports in 1908. During the 1930s depression areas near the railway canal were in disputed ownership among public authorities. The land was used as a tip, which gave an opportunity for unhoused people to build humpies and subsist from tip scratching. The area was named Dudley Flats and attracted comment by the slum reclamation movement. By the early 1940s the war-waste recovery activity eliminated tip scratching and the Dudley Flats inhabitants went elsewhere.

DONBURN
Donburn is a locality with Doncaster East, being that area around the Blackburn Road/George Street intersection. The locality has a school and shopping centre which both use the Donburn name. It is believed the name is derived from Doncaster, and was used initially as the name for a private subdivision.


Westfield Doncaster

DONCASTER
Doncaster, formerly an orchard area, is now residential and is 1.5 km east-north-east of Melbourne. Settlement a little to the west of Doncaster began with Unwin's Special Survey in Bulleen in 1841. Further settlement occurred along the Koonung Koonung Creek and other streams in the Doncaster area in the 1850s. Several of them were German, and a Lutheran church was the first one in Doncaster in 1858. A Lutheran school opened in 1860 and a denominational school in 1861. The German community was named Waldau, but the name Doncaster gradually became commonly accepted. In 1854 John Robert Wilson, from Doncaster in Yorkshire, England, built the Doncaster Arms Inn on the track through the stringybark forest to the Warrandyte gold diggings. The track was later named Doncaster Road. An alternative derivation may be from William Burnley, a Richmond land developer, who sold land in Doncaster in the 1850s. He also was from Doncaster, England. Early settlers earned income from timber and fire wood. The land proved suitable for cereals, vegetables and orchards. In the long term fruit was more profitable, and orchards predominated, growing citrus, pome and stone fruits.


Mullum Mullum Creek Linear Park is in the districts of Donvale and Doncaster East.

DONCASTER EAST
Doncaster East occupies a larger area than Doncaster, and together they stretch six kilometres from Bulleen to Donvale. Doncaster East is shaped like a reverse L, with the north-south part wrapping around Templestowe and ending at the Yarra River. Near where Doncaster East borders Doncaster is the place where an active German community lived in the previous century. The locality was called Waldau (the name of the present local primary school), and their influence is preserved in Rieschieck's Reserve in which is found Schramm's Cottage. Schramm was a Lutheran pastor.

DONVALE
Donvale is 20 km east from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Manningham. At the 2006 Census, Donvale had a population of 11,667. The Doncaster region was settled in the 1860s and 1870s predominantly by German settler orchardists. The German community was named Waldau, but the name Doncaster gradually became commonly accepted. A Lutheran church was the first one in Doncaster in 1858. Donevale is derived from the name Doncaster.

DOREEN
Doreen is 36 km north-east from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Whittlesea and Shire of Nillumbik. At the 2006 Census, Doreen had a population of 3,451. Patrick Reid settled the area in 1844, calling it "Hazel Glen". Doreen was eventually named after the heroine of the novel titled "Point Colbert" written by Nathan Bragg. The Post Office opened on 8 December 1870 as Hazelglen and was renamed Doreen in 1895.

DOVETON
Doveton, a suburb of Dandenong, is 32 kilometres south-east of central Melbourne. It is immediately east of Dandenong and north of the Princes Highway. The area was originally part of the Eumemmering pastoral run. This part became the Grassmere estate, which was subdivided into smaller holdings in the 1880s. A small farming community was served by a hotel and school. There was also a racecourse. Doveton came into existence in the mid 1950s when the Housing Commission purchased a large area of land to provide low cost housing for workers employed in the new factories near Dandenong. A lace factory had commenced operations on the Princes Highway in 1950. On the southern side of the highway, first International Harvester, then General Motors-Holden and then Heinz established large factories. These were followed by many smaller factories.
Doveton was named after F.C. Doveton, a Goldfields Commissioner and Police Magistrate, who had earlier lived in the area. By 1962, there were 1,500 homes. At first, there were few community facilities. A Progress Association was formed in the early 1960s and by 1970, as shown by the Victorian Municipal Directory, Doveton had many services.


Dromana beach huts

DROMANA
Dromana is located on the Mornington Peninsula. Its Local Government Area is the Shire of Mornington Peninsula. Dromana is famous for its pristine beaches, white sand and local cuisine. It was recently awarded the 'Best place to live...ever' by website Travel Guide and has been featured in a number of top ten beach lists worldwide. The name is believed to have Irish origins.

EAGLEMONT
Eaglemont is an elevated residential suburb 10 km. north-east of Melbourne. It is part of Ivanhoe. The name is probably derived from Mount Eagle, a Crown Grant property acquired by Thomas Walker, N.S.W., in 1838. Walker was the author of "A Month in the Bush of Australia" (1838) and he was one of the representatives of the Port Phillip District elected to the New South Wales Legislative Council in 1843. He sold the property to John Browne, father of the author Rolfe Boldrewood.
Until the turn of the century Eaglemont was a place of large estates and scattered houses. The depression caused some houses to be vacated, and the plein air school of painters were able to cheaply rent one at the Mount Eagle Estate, shortly after railway access was made possible by the extension to Heidelberg in 1888. Mount Eagle and the surrounding area were already renowned for fine views and appealing landscape. As Ivanhoe underwent rapid subdivision in the years before the first world war, Eaglemont was something of an elevated country retreat. A golf club was established in 1898, leaving the site in 1910 for one near the Rosanna railway station. A tennis club was formed in 1912. The move by the golf club and the formation of the tennis club coincided with the subdivision of several estates, which were provoked by a direct rail link to Melbourne in 1901. In 1902-3 Harold Annear, architect, designed three stylish and innovative house at 32, 34 and 38 The Eyrie. In 1915 Walter Burley Griffin laid out an estate of three streets (Glenard Drive area), and other subdivisions bear evidence of his landscape ideas. When the Eaglemont and Mount Eagle estate was subdivided for housing the advertisement stated that all streets were one chain wide and planted with choice English trees. Any house to be erected was restricted to a value of 750 pounds of more, two or three times the cost of more modest houses. That restriction has been maintained either by caveat or custom.


Fitzroy Gardens, East Melbourne

EAST MELBOURNE
East Melbourne is a residential and commercial suburb which retains a number of religious and institutional buildings on land grants made during the nineteenth century. It borders central Melbourne's Spring Street, and its other boundaries are Victoria Parade, Hoddle Street/Punt Road and the Yarra River. The Government surveyor, Robert Hoddle, prepared a plan for East Melbourne in 1837, with roads correctly running north-south and east-west on contrast to the skewed directions of central Melbourne's streets which took their axis from the direction of the Yarra River. Hoddle's plan had a grid layout north of the extension of Flinders Street, i.e. Wellington Parade, and the north-south Police and Government Paddocks from Wellington Parade to the river. The plan was not implemented, and settlement leap-frogged East Melbourne to Fitzroy, Collingwood and Richmond.
An early resident of East Melbourne was Charles La Trobe, Superintendent of the Port Phillip District, who was obliged to buy at auction the land he had chosen at Jolimont, off Wellington Parade, as the place on which to erect his transportable dwelling. He bought the land at his opening bid in 1840. La Trobe's cottage survives on a reserve across the Yarra River, near the Botanic Gardens. Numerous reservations were made for churches and schools, particularly along Albert Street. These reservations are north of a larger reserve which became Fitzroy Gardens.

EDEN PARK
Eden Park, 38 km. north of Melbourne, is 4 km. west of Whittlesea. The area was surveyed and sold between 1840 and 1854, when Ewen Robertson acquired about 400 ha. and built a twelve-roomed homestead named Breadalbane. In 1888 Robertson sold most of the land to an investor, who subdivided it into over 1,300 lots. Roads were laid out in a grid pattern over most of the subdivision, but the roads in the north-west randomly ran along contours or at right angles to some steeper contours. In all cases the land is gravelley and prone to sheet, tunnel and gully erosion. The estate was marketed as "Eden park".

*EDITHVALE
Edithvale is 28 km south-east from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Kingston. At the 2006 Census, Edithvale had a population of 4991. Edithvale is best known for its long beach of pure white sand and historic bathing boxes. Residents groups have set up the Kingston Boatshed Association to protect these historic treasurers originally constructed by their owners for family activities such as swimming and fishing. The waters of Port Phillip Bay provide an excellent reflection as the sun sets directly facing the shore. Edithvale Post Office opened on 20 April 1923. Edithvale railway station opened on September 20, 1919.

ELSTERNWICK
Elsternwick is a residential suburb 9 km. south-south-east of Melbourne between bayside Elwood and Caulfield South. The name is derived from "elster", the German word for magpie and the Anglo-Saxon "wick" meaning village. Charles Ebden (the builder of Black Rock House, Black Rock, 1856), also had a house in the Elsternwick area, which it is though he named Elster. The name Elsternwick came into general use in the late 1850s.
Elsternwick village was surveyed in 1856, situated on the Elster Creek, which later became the Elwood Canal. The village's location is partly occupied by today's Gardenvale. Elsternwick's western boundary is notionally in Elwood where Elsternwick Park is situated. Elsternwick primary school (1889) is nearby. The suburb extends eastwards across the Nepean Highway and the railway line, particularly along the Glenhuntly Road shopping strip for about one-and-a-half kilometres to Kooyong Road.
In 1861 the Melbourne and Suburban Railway Co. completed the railway line from Melbourne to Brighton, via Elsternwick. The effect on Elsternwick was to make its large residential estates more accessible to Melbourne rather than to provoke subdivisions. By 1880, however, some large land owners released land for subdivision and the process gathered pace during the coming decade. The tramline was opened along Glenhuntly Road (where the railway line and station intersected with it), in 1889.


Eltham miniature railway

ELTHAM
Eltham is 20 km north-east of Melbourne. It was surveyed as a village in 1840, near the junction of the Diamond Creek and the Yarra River, coinciding approximately with the track marked by the Ryries to provide access from their property near Yarra Glen to the Heidelberg village. The name probably derives from one of several Elthams in England. In 1857 town allotments were sold in both the surveyed site and a little northwards. The latter was promoted by a speculator as Little Eltham and it sold better and influenced the ultimate town centre. During the period of the Caledonia Diggings (centred on St. Andrews and Panton Hill), Eltham's population grew as the town became a food, produce and supply centre for the mining communities (1860s - 1880s).
A post office was opened in 1854 and a flour mill, brewery, brick works and tannery later in the decade. There were also two churches, a primary school (1856), a police station and a court house. Eltham also became a stopping place en route to the Woods Point Diggings. In the 1880s agitation began for extension of the railway from Heidelberg, to serve Eltham and districts further afield such as Kangaroo Ground. The extension came to Eltham in 1902, but never to Kangaroo Ground.

ELWOOD
Elwood, a bayside suburb, is south of St. Kilda and 8 km. south of Melbourne. Its name is surmised to have come from the Quaker historian and poet, Thomas Elwood, a friend of the poet Milton. Lieut. Governor La Trobe, who had influence in the naming of places, had a high regard for Quakers. Elwood has two geographic features: the Elster Creek, with headwaters in Bentleigh, flows north-easterly to the flat landscape of Elwood, and now enters Port Phillip Bay by a straightened stream, named the Elwood Canal (1887); and Point Ormond, a little south of the canal, was the receiving place for passengers form the typhoid ship, Glen Huntly, in 1841. (It was also known as Red Bluff, but renamed after the father of the philanthropist, Francis Ormond.) Land surveys and sales of land in Elwood, south of Point Ormond, occurred in 1850-1. In the mid 1860s Elwood was a small hamlet on swampy ground, with a few properties on the higher ground south of the Point. In 1870 the area was incorporated with St. Kilda borough.

EMERALD
Emerald, a township in the Dandenong Ranges, is 44 km. east-south-east of Melbourne. The name came from Emerald Creek (also known as Ti Tree Creek) which was named after a prospector Jack Emerald who was murdered in 1858. In the same year the Emerald gold diggings were opened, centred on alluvial workings on the Emerald and other creeks. A town reserve was approved in 1859. By 1860 a rudimentary township grew near the miners' encampment. Mining was intermittent, but residents had rural pursuits such as eucalyptus-leaf harvesting for the distilling of eucalyptus oil. Settlers first selected land for farming in the late 1870s. The locality's development was marked by the opening of the narrow-gauge railway from Belgrave to Gembrook (1900) later to become the Puffing Billy scenic railway.

ENDEAVOUR HILLS
Endeavour Hills is 31 km south-east from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Casey. At the 2006 Census, Endeavour Hills had a population of 25,006. The land in the area was home firstly to the Aboriginal people and was later settled by Europeans, who came after the 1830s. They mainly used the land for farming and cattle runs. Because of the many pine trees in the area, Endeavour Hills was almost called 'Piney Ridge', or 'Pine Hills'. In 1970, the name 'Endeavour Hills' was coined in honour of the two hundredth anniversary of Captain James Cook's arrival in Botany Bay. The estate was officially opened in 1974 under this name. The suburb as we know it today began with the development of a small housing estate named Endeavour Hills.


Epping Plaza regional shopping centre

EPPING
Epping is a suburb 18 km. north of Melbourne, on the Darebin Creek. It is the terminus of a metropolitan railway line. An unnamed village reserve was surveyed in 1839 where Epping later developed. The village was named Epping in 1853, probably after Epping Forest, Essex, England, by when there were a hotel (1844) and a Catholic school. The Epping Road Board was established a year later. In 1870 the area around Epping became Darebin shire, which was re-named Epping shire in 1893 until united with Whittlesea shire in 1915. By the time the shire was created Epping township contained several churches, hotels and a state school as well as church school. Farmers of Irish origin predominated, but English, Scots and Germans settled there. There were several dairy farms. The Melbourne to Whittlesea railway (1889-1960) had a station at Epping, and the main areas to benefit were the transport of milk and quarry products.

*ESSENDON / ESSENDON NORTH / ESSENDON WEST
Essendon is 10 km north-west from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Moonee Valley. At the 2006 Census, Essendon had a population of 18,213. Essendon and the banks of the Maribyrnong River were originally inhabited by the Wurundjeri tribe of the Kulin Aboriginal peoples. In 1803 Charles Grimes and James Fleming were the first known European explorers into the Maribyrnong area. In 1851 the gold rush opened up the Moonee Ponds District with miners travelling along Mount Alexander Road to Castlemaine. Essendon Post Office opened on 18 August 1856.

*EUMEMMERRING
Eumemmerring is a suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 33 km south-east from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Casey. At the 2006 Census, Eumemmerring had a population of 1672. Eumemmerring Post Office opened in a rural area on 1 April 1890, but closed in 1895. The name is of Aboriginal origin.

FAIRFIELD
Fairfield, a residential and industrial suburb east of Northcote, is 6 km. north-east of Melbourne. It includes a southerly portion surrounded on three sides by meanders of the Merri Creek and the Yarra River, chiefly consisting of open space and once containing institutions dating from colonial times, notable the Yarra Bend asylum. Land sales in the Fairfield area were included in those extending from Northcote to Alphington in 1840. The early villages were Alphington and Northcote (where today's Westgarth is situated). In the early 1880s a land speculator, Charles Henry James, bought up large tracts of land in the district, and sold some of it in subdivided form in an estate named Fairfield Park, apparently a name taken from Derbyshire. (James is acknowledged to have been one of Melbourne's first and most successful land boomers, but the depression of the 1890s saw him lose his Illawarra mansion in Toorak). In 1888 the railway line through Fairfield Park, from Collingwood to Heidelberg, was opened, and Fairfield Park was the junction of the Outer Circle railway from Oakleigh (1891-93). James also had a tram service along Station Street, from the station to Mansfield Street running from 1884 to 1890, connected to the railway line that between 1884 and 1888 ran only from Clifton Hill to Alphington (the line from "no where to no where"). Fairfield was thus launched with a high degree of attention to public access, and the house blocks sold well. They were reasonable value for money in that they were bigger than the standard blocks closer to Melbourne.

FAWKNER
Fawkner is a residential area 12 km. north of Melbourne with the Hume Highway on its west and the Merri Creek on its east. The area was first known as Box Forest, after a farmlets subdivision sold by John Pascoe Fawkner (above) in the early 1850s. The name was superseded by Fawkner fairly soon, although a Box Forest (Anglican) school was opened in 1846 and a Box Forest Road runs along the northern boundary of the Fawkner cemetery. (The original Box Forest subdivision is west of present-day Fawkner.)
When the area north of Coburg was entirely rural, a railway line was opened from Coburg to Somerton, where it joined the main line to Seymour, (1889). In anticipation of this the Coburg Reserve Estate Co. subdivided land for housing, citing the convenience of the North Coburg railway station and another near the present Fawkner station. The venture was unsuccessful. In 1905 the State Government approved the New Melbourne General Cemetery for the northern suburbs, one year after the new eastern suburbs cemetery was opened at Springvale. The cemetery is immediately west of the railway line and the Fawkner station was opened in 1906. Although the station only received mortuary trains at first, a small amount of housing was encourage by its presence, and ordinary passenger trains began in 1914. In 1908 a primary school was opened.
By the outbreak of the second world war Fawkner had about 180 buildings, and shortly after the war the Housing Commission built 113 houses in south Fawkner. Private-sector developers built housing and by 1960 the Moomba Park estate (700 houses) in North Fawkner was begun.


Ferntree Gully

FERNTREE GULLY
Ferntree Gully, originally "Fern Tree Gully" because of the scenic gully now partly in the National Park of the same name, is mostly a large suburban area 32 km. east-south-east of Melbourne. The fern tree gully in the National Park runs along a creek between One Tree Hill and the Upper Ferntree Gully railway station. The gully became an excursion destination in the 1870s, and its popularity increased when the railway was extended from Ringwood to Upper Ferntree Gully in 1889. Seven years before, the land around the gully had been reserved for public purposes, and the reservation was given the status of a national park in 1927.
Upper Ferntree Gully is generally the eastern extremity of the locality. Its western edge is near the junction of Ferntree Gully Road and the Burwood Highway, at the Club Hotel, which had been the coach terminus for excursionists before the railway extension.

FERNY CREEK
Ferny Creek is a township in the Dandenong Ranges between the former Ferntree Gully National Park and the Sherbrooke Forest (now amalgamated in the Dandenong Ranges national Park), and is 33 km. east-south-east of Melbourne. One Tree Hill, in the upper part of the former Ferntree Gully National Park, was an elevation cleared of all trees but one and used as a survey marker in the 1860s. In 1878 land was excised from the forest around One Tree Hill for selection, and thus the Ferny Creek area was first settled. In 1893 the area was the site of a Village Settlement and in 1895 a school was opened. The area was, however, known as One Tree Hill at least until 1897 when a post office was opened and named after the nearby Ferny Creek. A mechanics' institute was built in 1905, about the time when Melburnians began building weekenders in the area.


Fishermans Bend, 1944. The Department of Aircraft Production and the Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation plants along the Yarra River can be seen. Fishermans Bend airfield's two runways, visible in the top of the photograph, are now Todd and Wharf Roads

FISHERMANS BEND
Fishermans Bend is a locality within the suburb of Port Melbourne. It is positioned immediately to the east of the West Gate Bridge, on the south bank of the Yarra River, adjacent to the suburb of Port Melbourne and opposite Coode Island. Fishermens Bend itself was a bend in the Yarra River at Humbug Reach where the Maribyrnong River entered it. After the contruction of Coode Canal in 1886, the name then came to be applied to the land opposite Coode Island also, on the south side of the canal, and even to Sandridge Beach, Port Melbourne west, which became Garden City (renamed in 1929). Fishermans Bend was an early location for Bay fishermen of European descent, from the 1850s. Some thirty families lived on the Bend, frequently finding additional work in the docks and cargo ships. Ballast was loaded onto ships returning to Europe. Habitation was rough shacks along the Bend, made from corrugated iron, flattened kerosene tins or wood. Water was collected from hanging out sail canvases and stored in iron tanks or casks, and milk came from a nearby farm. The last remaining shack on the Bend was demolished in 1970, to make way for Webb Dock. The primarily industrial suburb of Fishermens Bend also has a significant place in Australian transport history, being the home of several prominent historical design and manufacturing companies including the Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation, General Motors Holden, the Rootes Group, Smorgon Steel, Government Aircraft Factories, the Aeronautical Research Laboratory and regional facilities for Boeing.


Johnston Street, Fitzroy

FITZROY
Adjoining the eastern boundary of Carlton, 2 km. north-east of Melbourne's centre, Fitzroy was Melbourne's first suburb. The eastern boundary of Fitzroy adjoins Collingwood. The name comes form Sir Charles Fitz Roy, Governor of New South Wales, 1846-1855. Alexandra Parade divides the former Fitzroy municipality into Fitzroy North and Fitzroy South.
In 1839 the area of Fitzroy south of Alexandra Parade was subdivided into lots of about 12 ha. and offered for sale. The area was called Newtown (which tended to extend eastwards into present-day Collingwood), and Newtown subsequently was called Collingwood. Present-day Collingwood was East Collingwood. In 1850 the area now known as Fitzroy was made the Fitzroy Ward of the Melbourne City Council. Three years after East Collingwood became a municipality, a separate Fitzroy municipality was created on 10 September, 1858, by severance of the ward from Melbourne. By then its population was about 10,000 persons. The layout of streets was mostly in the lands of private subdividers: the government surveyor had prescribed only main arteries such as Nicholson, Brunswick, Smith, Gertrude and Johnston Streets.

FITZROY NORTH
Fitzroy North, 4 km. north-east of Melbourne, is separated from Fitzroy (South) by Alexandra Parade. It was laid out in the 1850s, by and large to a design developed by government survey staff in contrast to the under-dimensioned thoroughfares and allotments arising from private speculation and development south of Alexandra Parade. The design was fitted around the north-easterly thoroughfares of Queens Parade and St. Georges Road, the latter running over the Yan Yean water-supply pipe (1857). An unrealised suburban design from the government survey department was "Merriville", but the name is acknowledged by the locality of Merri in Northcote, just over the border. The border is, in fact the Merri Creek. Suburban allotments were not sold until the 1860s and 1870s. The tram in Nicholson Street, along the western boundary, was begun in 1887 and the service along Queens Parade in the same year. Shopping strips developed along the three tram lines, Nicholson Street, St. George's Road and Queens Parade, the last one being the strongest and having the attraction of a plantation and service road protecting it from the main traffic.


Melbourne Cup, Flemington Racecourse

FLEMINGTON
Flemington is an inner residential suburb 4 km. north-west of Melbourne, situated between North Melbourne and Ascot Vale. Flemington's name has either of two possible origins. The more likely is from James Watson who early in 1839 came to Port Phillip as a pastoral agent for English and Scottish investors, as well as investing for himself. He purchased land in Flemington and Heidelberg. His wife was Elisabeth Rose, whose father was manager of the Flemington estate in Scotland. (Watson also named his Heidelberg land Rose-Anna, inspired by his wife's name, and the area later became the suburb of Rosanna.) The other possible origin for the name is thought to be Robert Fleming, who established a butchery on the site later taken by the racecourse. A butchery beside the Saltwater (Maribyrnong) River would have been in keeping with the river's later use for noxious outfalls.
Flemington racecourse was first used for horse racing in March, 1840. In 1848 the Port Phillip Racing Club took a lease of the racecourse site. The first Government land sales were held in December, 1840. Flemington is traversed by Mt. Alexander Road, the route to the Bendigo gold diggings. In 1851 the Flemington bridge over the Moonee Ponds Creek was built, improving the connection to the gold diggings' road out of Melbourne. The Flemington Hotel had been there since about 1848. In 1859 the western part of Flemington was taken for a new stockyards, to relieve the congested facility at Elizabeth Street, Melbourne. Two years later abattoirs were opened near the stockyard. The move coincided with the opening of the railway line from North Melbourne to Essendon, which ran near the stockyard at Newmarket, Flemington's commercial centre.

FLINDERS
Flinders is a town located on the Mornington Peninsula at the point where Western Port meets Bass Strait. Its Local Government Area is the Shire of Mornington Peninsula. At the 2006 census, Flinders had a population of 787. The town was named after the explorer and British naval officer Captain Matthew Flinders. Settlement commenced in 1854 and many pioneers and settlers are buried at the Flinders cemetery. Flinders Post Office opened on 7 March 1863 as the population grew.


Footscray Town Hall

FOOTSCRAY
Footscray is characterised by a very diverse, multicultural central shopping area, which reflects the successive waves of immigration experienced by Melbourne, and by Footscray in particular. It was once a centre for Italian and Macedonian migrants, it is now a hub for Vietnamese, and increasingly, North African immigrants in Melbourne. The inner western suburbs of Melbourne were traditionally undesirable as residential areas due to the presence of heavy industry, however this has changed dramatically as nearly all of the factories have gone over the last decades, and their products now imported. From the 1950s till 1990's the affordability of housing and availability of employment opportunities in these areas have made them attractive to migrants for many years. Greek, Italian, Macedonian, Bosnian and Croatian migrants arrived in the 1950s and 1960s, followed by Vietnamese in the 1970s and 1980s. However, in recent years there has been rapid gentrification as younger people seek affordable period housing close to Melbourne city centre. Footscray was named after Foots Cray in southeast England. The Post Office first opened on 12th October 1857.

FOREST HILL
Forest Hill is a residential suburb 17 km. east of Melbourne immediately south of Blackburn and Nunawading. The area was originally known as Scotchman's Hill and Mt. Pleasant in the 1860s. An early settler was Abraham Rooks (Rooks Road is on the east of Forest Hill), who was a Wesleyan. He was associated with the Mt. Pleasant Wesleyan church (1865), which was the site of the area's first primary school. The church is now the Mt. Pleasant Uniting Church. The name Scotchman's Hill slightly predates 1860 when Scots farmers and woodcutters established a settlement. Both names gave way to Forest Hill, reputedly the name of a cottage occupied by a Captain Bunbury in 1841. The name certainly described the nature of the countryside when first encountered by white settlers.
Forest Hill is about 2 km., south of the Box Hill to Lilydale railway, which resulted in it being unaffected by early land-subdivision schemes. It was mainly a fruit-growing district, with a general store, post office (1874), and a church. A State primary school was opened in 1926. The census population in 1933 was 286. After the second world war orchards near Nunawading were subdivided for housing and Forest Hill's population began to increase. Despite the relative remoteness of the area, a site at the corner of Canterbury and Mahoneys Roads was purchased in 1958 for a drive-in shopping centre, at about the same time as Myer was planning its first shopping centre at Chadstone. Forest Hill Chase, as it was later called, was ahead of its time and its retail catchment, and took another twenty years to achieve its potential. By 1970 Forest Hill's residential form was complete, with a grid street design predating the residential configuration concerned with lessening through traffic.


Frankston

FRANKSTON / Frankston East / Frankston Heights / Frankston South / Frankston North
Frankston is a small city 39 km south-east from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Frankston. At the 2006 Census, Frankston had a population of 34,457. Due to its geographical location, the suburb is often referred to as "the gateway to the Mornington Peninsula". Prior to European discovery, the Frankston area was populated by Indigenous Australians known as the Kulin people. Europeans first set foot in Frankston as early as January 30, 1803, thirty two years before the founding of Melbourne, when Captain Charles Grimes and his party went ashore searching for freshwater, and met with around 30 local inhabitants. After the settlement of Melbourne in 1835, James Davey took up a large land holding in 1846, which extended from Olivers Hill to (what is now his namesake) Daveys Bay. Olivers Hill was named after local fisherman, James Oliver, who built a cottage atop the hill from where he kept an eye out for fish in the waters below. The first official land sales in the area were held in 1853, and Frank Liardet (the eldest son of prominent settler, hotelier and descendant of French nobility, Wilburham Liardet), established the "Ballam Ballam" estate in 1854. The estate was the earliest officially recorded settlement in Frankston, and was located to the east of Port Phillip Bay. Liardet's original homestead "Ballam Park" remains today, and is now heritage-listed. Frankston is taken from Liardet's christian name, Frank.

GARDEN CITY
Garden City is a residential area 5 km. south-west of Melbourne, and immediately west of Port Melbourne. The land on which Garden City is laid out was known as Sandridge Flat, and subsequently as Fishermens Bend. When the Coode Canal was constructed in 1884-6 to both improve cargo ship access to the docks and to increase the stream velocity for upstream flood mitigation, the excavated silt was used for land reclamation. Much of the surrounding land was marshy river delta. In 1912 the Port Melbourne Council lobbied the State Government for housing sites to be allowed on the reclaimed land, but the Harbor Trust asserted its claim over the land which was in Trust territory. Prevarication on the Government's part continued until the State Savings Bank took up proposals by the Council and the Metropolitan Town Planning Commission and purchased 18 hectares of land in 1926 to the south of Williamstown Road and west of Graham Street. The Bank's estate consisted of houses which were two-storey, semi-detached and cement rendered, the estate and English design houses within it being inspired by the popular the Garden Suburb concept. They were the beginning of what became Melbourne's first Garden Suburb - Garden City.

GARDENVALE
Gardenvale, a residential suburb between Elsternwick and North Brighton, is 10 km south-east of Melbourne. It originated with the Garden Vale estate, a subdivision on Lempriere's Paddock (1908) in the vicinity of Gardenvale Road between Nepean Highway and Kooyong Road. The origin of the name is uncertain: in 1907 the railway station was named Garden Vale, presumably inspired by the Market Gardens in the gently undulating countryside. The Elster Creek flows through Gardenvale before entering the Elwood Canal. Closer to the beach (i.e. North Brighton), settlement had occurred earlier. The Presbyterian Church was opened in 1862 and the second building in 1876, to be named John Knox, Gardenvale, in 1940.

GARDINER
Gardiner is a residential locality 9 km. south-east of Melbourne in the part of Glen Iris south of Gardiners Creek, near Malvern. The name recalls John Gardiner, a pastoral overlander to Port Phillip from Yass, New South Wales, in 1835. He settled near the junction of the Yarra River and Gardiners Creek about three kilometres to the north-east. His name was given to Gardiner shire (1871) which became Malvern shire in 1878. Gardiner has a railway station on the line from Burnley to Malvern East (1890). In 1912 the Belmont Estate was sold in subdivided form for housing, and three years late the Gardiner Central School in Belmont Street was opened. It later became a primary school and closed in 1992.

GEMBROOK
Gembrook is 54 km. east-south-east of Melbourne and 18 km. east of Belgrave. It was the terminus of a narrow gauge railway from Belgrave, now the "Puffing Billy" scenic railway. Gembrook was first settled in 1873 for farming and timber getting. The country was suitable for dairying and orchards. Timber clearing provided income while farms were brought into production. The name came from small emeralds and sapphires found by early settlers in a nearby watercourse.

GLADSTONE PARK
Gladstone Park is the eastern part of Tullamarine, 15 km. north of Melbourne. It has the Moonee Ponds Creek to its north and east. The name comes from a grazing property owned by Thomas Gladstone between 1869 and 1883. The area was subdivided for farms in 1842, and the Gladstone Park property was the best-watered and the only one to be sold. It was farmed until sold in 1887 to a land speculator, but his speculation was unsuccessful and the property returned to the Gladstone family. It continued to be farmed until coming into the hands of the Gladstone Park Syndicate in 1954. The Syndicate was part of Stanley Korman's Standhill conglomerate.
Stanhill produced an elaborate subdivision plan but met with financial difficulties. The Commonwealth Government's credit squeeze in 1961 caused the company to default and Costain and A.V. Jennings became the joint developer/builder of Gladstone Park. In 1966 they began the ten-year project of building 3,000 houses in Gladstone Park. In 1970 the area's first primary school was opened. Gladstone Park has a street configuration which is designed to discourage through traffic in most residential streets.

GLEN IRIS
Glen Iris is a residential suburb 10 kin. south-east of Melbourne, Its name come from that of a residence built by a solicitor J.C. Turner. He had acquired his land from a settler who had travelled to Victoria on the ship named the Iris. Glen Iris includes the small locality of Gardiner which, with the creek of the same name, was named after John Gardiner who overlanded stock to Port Phillip from New South Wales in 1836. Gardiner pastured his stock near where Gardiners Creek joins the Yarra River. Unlike Camberwell, Hartwell and Box Hill which were situated on roads or had inns for travellers. Glen Iris was a place of farms overlooking the Gardiners Creek Valley. The population growth was sufficient, though, for a Methodist church to be built in 1865 and a school in 1872 Both were in Glen Iris Road and were still in use in 1997. A general store was opened nearby in 1882, where a small local shopping centre continues to function.
In 1890 a railway line was opened from Burnley to Oakleigh running via the Glen Iris Valley (as the Gardiners Creek Valley was called). The line in fact joined the Outer Circle line a little east of Glen Iris, and it was truncated when the Outer Circle line was partly closed in 1895. The line had three stations in the Glen Iris district - Tooronga, Gardiner and Glen Iris. Residential change came first ill the Malvern part of Glen Iris, which by 1917 had three tramlines - Malvern Road, turning north into Burke Road, Wattletree Road, terminating at Burke Road and High Street terminating at Glen Iris Railway station.

GLENBEVRIE
Glenbervie is a railway station located in the suburb of Essendon, on the Craigieburn railway line. Glenbervie station opened on September 11, 1922, a year after the line through it had been electrified, the railway having opened in 1872 as part of the North East railway to Wodonga.


Glenferrie Road

GLENFERRIE
Glenferrie is a residential area 7 km. east of Melbourne, containing the main civic and retail buildings of the Hawthorn area. Glenferrie was at first called Upper Hawthorn. The main north-south thoroughfare is Glenferrie Road, and the name probably came from a property purchased in 1840 by Peter Ferrie, which he called Glen Ferrie. The property was on the south side of Gardiners Creek, in Malvern. Glenferrie was the name given to the railway station on the line between Hawthorn and Camberwell in 1882.
Burwood Road was the main east-west route through Hawthorn to Camberwell, and the Hawthorn borough hall was opened at the corner of Glenferrie and Burwood Roads in 1861. The local shopping strip before the turn of the century was along Burwood Road, which was serviced by a horse tram between 1890 and 1916. In 1913, however, a tramline was opened along Glenferrie Road, which stimulated the building of a second shopping strip, which ultimately overtook Burwood Road. The tram also became the private schools' line servicing Scotch College, Glenferrie (1916), Tintern Girls' school (until its transfer to Ringwood in 1953) and several further north in Kew. In 1916 the Hawthorn Tramways Trust opened an electric tramline along Riversdale Road, in addition to the parallel railway line (1882) about 800 metres northwards.


Glenhuntly Road

GLENHUNTLY
Glenhuntly is a residential suburb 11 km. south-east of Melbourne served by a railway line (1881) and a tram (1889). It is south of Caulfield. On 7 April, 1840, the ship Glen Huntly arrived in Port Phillip Bay with fever on board, probably typhus. A quarantine station was set up at Point Ormond, and a track leading inland from the Point became known as Glen Huntly Road. About 6 km. eastwards long the road the suburb of Glenhuntly was formed. Despite the presence of public transport in the 1880s, residential development was small. The area was occupied by farmers. The Anglican St. Agnes church was opened in 1888 in Booran Road. A later church was the Congregational one (1909), the building being a weatherboard Primitive Methodist structure transported from South Melbourne. It is on the Register of the National Estate, having been acquired for Greek Orthodox worship in 1983.

GLENROY
Glenroy is a residential area 13 km. north of Melbourne. It contains the locality of Oak Park and the lesser ones of Gowrie, Westbreen and Hadfield. Its name comes form the Glenroy pastoral run occupied by Duncan Cameron from Glen Roy, Scotland. Cameron was one of several Scots farmers in the district whose tenure is still visible in the bluestone Scots church at Campbellfield. The area occupied by today's suburb was held by the Kennedy family, also from Inverness, Scotland, who arrived in Port Phillip in the mid 1840s. One of the family properties was Glenroy Farm, located immediately east of the railway line (1872) and accessed by a private level crossing along the alignment of the present day Glenroy Road. In 1874 Glenroy Farm and adjoining Kennedy properties were sold, and on-sold twelve years later at much profit to the Glenroy Land Co., which marketed it two years later as the Toorak of the North. The promoters built three double-storey shops in Wheatsheaf Road, fitted out a hall and paved some roads.
After the second world war Australian National Airways sponsored housing for its employees in Glenroy West (1946) and the War Service Homes Commission began building on the other side of the railway line in 1950. The following year the Housing Commission took control of 2,226 ha. of land in the Broadmeadows municipality, including Glenroy north, for housing. Between 1953 and 1957 the Commission completed about 1,700 houses in Glenroy and Jacana (the railway station next after Glenroy). Housing in Glenroy south proceeded at a similar pace.


Bushy Park Wetlands, a conservation park nestled at the north eastern edge of Glen Waverley

GLEN WAVERLEY
Glen Waverley, the terminus of a metropolitan railway line, is a residential suburb 19 km. south-east of Melbourne. The area was first named Black Flat. In 1868 when the area was occupied by farmers, orchardists and wood carters, a school was opened. By the 1880s there was a post office and a rudimentary township, and residents of Black Flat felt confident enough to seek a railway line connection. They were unsuccessful. Some residents were also discontented with the name and various proposals were considered over ten years. Finally Glen Waverley was settled in May, 1905, deriving from a privately surveyed township (1853), at the south-east corner of High Street Road and Stephensons Road, named by its owner after Sir Walter Scott's Waverley novels. In addition to farming, two early industries were gold mining (short lived, 1896), and pigment mining.
Notwithstanding the area's proximity to the railway line the outward spread of urbanisation from metropolitan Melbourne had substantial broad acres to fill in before reaching Glen Waverley. During the 1960s Glen Waverley underwent rapid residential growth.

GOWANBRAE
Gowanbrae is a suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 13 km north-west from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Moreland. At the 2006 Census, Gowanbrae had a population of 1892. It is the City of Moreland’s newest suburb with residential development started in the 1990s and continuing.

GOWRIE
Gowrie is a railway station located in the suburb of Glenroy, on the Upfield railway line. Gowrie station opened on October 16, 1928 as Rail Motor Stopping Place 21. It closed in 1956 and reopened in 1965 as Gowrie. Until 1991 every second train terminated here. Gowrie marks the end of the double track on the Upfield Line.


Plenty River, Greensborough

GREENSBOROUGH
Greensborough is a residential suburb 17 km. north-east of Melbourne, situated on the Plenty River. The land around Greensborough is hilly, and during Port Phillip's pastoral expansion it was not highly sought after apart from the areas adjoining streams or other well watered areas. It was part of the subdivision by the government surveyor, Robert Hoddle, in 1838. The section comprising most of present day Greensborough was purchased by Henry Smythe who sold it in 1841 to Edward Green, soldier, squatter and mail contractor. Green had various contracts for the carriage of mail to the western and north-western districts together with the service to Yass and Sydney. Although not occupying his land, Green had a town surveyed, overlooking the river, allegedly as a staging place for his re-routed mail contract. That did not eventuate, but land sales occurred and the "township" was called Greenborough, later Greensborough.
By 1868 Greensborough had an Anglican church with a primary school (1855), a store, a post office, a hotel and a local population of about 200. The Road District's population was about 670. In January, 1875, the Roads Board succeeded in amalgamating its area with Heidelberg shire, motivated by its difficulties in maintaining the roads. A state primary school replaced the Anglican in 1878. In 1902 the railway line was extended from Heidelberg to Eltham, with a station at Greensborough. The township's estimated population was about 270. There was a steady growth of population after the railway extension, but the area was predominantly rural until the postwar years because of the undeveloped areas suitable for inter-war housing closer to Melbourne.

GREENVALE
Greenvale is a suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 20 km north from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Hume. At the 2006 Census, Greenvale had a population of 10,401. Although positioned only twenty minutes from the CBD and ten minutes from Melbourne Airport, Greenvale has been up until recently known as a semi rural area, categorised by the larger farm holdings to the north of the town centre (past Somerton Rd), hence its descriptive name. Greenvale expanded largely in the 1980s.

GUYS HILL
Guys Hill is a suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 44 km east from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the Shire of Cardinia. At the 2006 Census, Guys Hill had a population of 544. Guys Hill Post Office opened on 1 September 1942.