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Two sailors from HMS Siriusbecome the first free men receive land grants in the colony.
Convict William Bryant, his wife Mary and their two children, and seven other convicts escape Port Jackson in Gov Arthur Phillip‘s cutter. In April they reach Port Stephens, and by June they arrive in Kupang, Timor. Here they are arrested by Capt Edward Edwards of the HMS Pandora, the victim of shipwreck on the Great Barrier Reef.
The Third Fleet begins to arrive with convicts, supplies and the colony’s official seal. Ships continue to arrive until 16th October, with Capt William Paterson of the NSW Corps arriving on the last transport.
Jervis Bay, NSW, entered and named by Lieut. Richard Bowen aboard the transport Atlantic.
The Activeand Queen arrive with the first Irish prisoners.
A number of Marines including Maj. Robert Ross (Officer of the Marines, and Lieut-Gov), Capt Watkin Tench and Lt. William Dawes leave the colony and return to England aboard HMS Gorgon. On 11th March, the ship arrives at the Cape of Good Hope where Mary Bryant and her group of escaped convicts, along with a number of Bounty mutineers are taken on board for the return journmey to England.
The Descubierta and Atrevida, under the command of Alexandro Malaspina arrive at Port Jackson. Under the patronage of theSpanish government, the voyage has already crossed the South Atlantic and Pacific, stopping at various ports in South America and the West Coast of North America, the Philippines and New Zealand.
The storeship Daedalus arrives at Port Jackson with two young Maori chiefs of New Zealand to assist in the dressing of flax on Norfolk¨ Island.
Convict Mary Bryant is granted an unconditional pardon by a British court.
The colony’s administrator Lieut-Gov Francis Grose is empowered to assign convicts as servants to civil and military officers. He is instructed to prevent the secret and clandestine sale of spiritsin the colony.
Arthur Phillip, in England, resigns the governorship of New South Wales.
The first seagoing vessel built in the colony of NSW, the schooner Francis, is launched and named after Lieut-Gov Francis Grose.
Governor John Hunter disbands the convict night watch. He divides Sydney into four districts, each responsible for their own watchmen, and orders houses to be numbered.
The ship Sydney Cove, en route to Calcutta from ort Jackson, is beached on Preservation Island, Furneaux Group. 17 men set out for Sydney in the ship’s longboat to get help. (survivor’s camp excavation)
The longboat of the Sydney Cove is wrecked near Cape Everard; the survivors continue their journey to Sydney on foot. They are picked up by fishermen 4 days later about 22km south of Botany Bay.
Reports of coal and the probable existence of a strait between the mainland and Van Diemen’s Land are made by survivors of the Sydney Cove shipwreck on their arrival in Sydney.
Schooner Francis and longboat Eliza sent by Gov John Hunter to pick up survivors of Sydney Cove. The pair leave the stricken sydney Cove on June 21; the Francis arrives in Sydney July 6, but the Eliza is never seen again.
The first sightings of a lyrebird and a koala are made by John Price, Governor John Hunter‘s servant.
Matthew Flinders joins the schooner Francis, the first seagoing vessel launched in Australia. They explore the Furneaux Islands (Flinders Island) on their way to retrieve stores lost on the Sydney Cove.
Royal Admiral arrives at Port Jackson with 257 convicts. Also on board are West Indian George Howe (soon to be Government Printer) and Ensign William Lawson. Lawson was soon posted to the garrison at Norfolk Island, where he married Sarah Leadbeater.